Transit Oriented Development

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Brad Bradford of Dialog presents Transit oriented development principles to the Toronto Certified Sustainable Building Advisor Course.

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Transit Oriented Development

  1. 1. Brad BRADFORDPLANNER | Planning + Urban Design bbradford@designdialog.ca @bradplans
  2. 2. process of shaping a physical setting toenhance quality of life ; and the visual and physical experience of everyday life
  3. 3. it is the art of creating meaningful and memorable places through the design and configuration of buildings, groups of buildings, spaces and landscapes.
  4. 4. building cities – differentiating one cityfrom another, enriches urban living,generates economic value, and attractspeople and business to these places.
  5. 5. the quality and character ofareas or structures that are in,design, patterns, arrangementsor that frame, public spaces.
  6. 6. 01 neighbourhoods02 streets03 open spaces04 built form
  7. 7. 01 neighbourhoods complete walkable connected identifiable
  8. 8. 02 streetsprimary open spacenetwork of the city
  9. 9. 02 streetsrelationship of streetsand buildings
  10. 10. 02 streetsvariety of users, modes oftransportation
  11. 11. 02 streetscomfort, safety, visual appeal
  12. 12. 03 open spacesopportunity for activity,range of scale
  13. 13. 03 open spacesadjacent uses,overall connectivity
  14. 14. 04 built formquality urban fabric,context+scale sensitive,contribution public realm
  15. 15. “Most of us will outlive our ability to drive. Ifwe want to be able to stay in ourneighborhoods, in our homes, beyond ourdriving years, we need streets that support usin walking and transit”.Smithtown, NY. Walkable and Liveable Cities Institute, 2012.
  16. 16. “This family in central Florida needs to cross astreet, but there isnt a crossing within aquarter-mile. So they take their chances withthe six lanes and cars passing at 45 to 55mph”. Walkable and Liveable Cities Institute, 2012.
  17. 17. Metrolinx planned investment: $11.5B provincial $6B federal
  18. 18. Transit-Oriented a mixed-use residential or Development: commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and encourage transit ridership
  19. 19. Transit-Oriented typically contains a centre Development: with train, subway, LRT, or bus station
  20. 20. Transit-Oriented surrounded by higher density Development: development, with progressively lower density outwards from centre
  21. 21. Transit-Oriented generally located with a Development: 500m radius from transit stop 500 m radius
  22. 22. stops set far apart 500 m radius 500 m radiusactivities are polarized + development sporadic + pedestrian environment inconsistentstops at regular intervals 500 m radius 500 m radius 500 m radius 500 m radius 500 m radiusactivities and development are well distributed + pedestrian environment continuous
  23. 23. Transit oriented development Extended tree canopydrive + transit Active uses at park grade level Active public realm walk Wider Sidewalks cycle Enhanced Crosswalks
  24. 24. Critical mass of peopleand activitiesConsistent buildingpodium (street-wall)Distinct streetscapingBuildings face thestreet with active usesat grade levelPedestrian crossings atregular intervalsIntegrated transitsystem
  25. 25. Neighbourhood
  26. 26. Common Characteristics• Predominantly single-family homes• Condition and value of homes vary widely• A mix of multi-family, employment and retail uses may occur, especially at stations close to downtown and along arterial roadways• Street grids are typically present within more urbanized areas; fewer are present within suburban areas and often include cul-de-sacs.Appropriate TOD CharacteristicsInfill – 2 storey townhomes and duplex housing, except on arterials, collectorroads and large sites where 4 storey apartment housing is appropriate.Neighbourhood serving retail uses, eating and drinking establishments andprofessional offices close to station. Improved pedestrian and bike access.
  27. 27. New Neighbourhood
  28. 28. Common Characteristics• Predominantly undeveloped land and large redevelopable sites; in some cases, portions of the area may already be developed for predominately single-family housing• Large development or redevelopment sitesAppropriate TOD CharacteristicsInfill –2 storey townhomes and duplex housing, except on arterials, collectorroads and large sites where mid-rise apartment housing is appropriate.Neighbourhood serving retail uses, eating and drinking establishments andprofessional offices close to station. Improved pedestrian and bike access.Greenfield –2 to 3 storey townhomes and 4 storey apartments.Neighbourhood serving retail uses, eating and drinking establishments andprofessional offices close to station. Interconnected street grid interspersedwith neighbourhood parks.
  29. 29. Enhanced Neighbourhood
  30. 30. Common Characteristics• No predominant use; existing uses vary from large redevelopment sites to existing shopping centres• Typically in close proximity to regional employment, shopping or recreational uses• Large development or redevelopment sites• Street grids may be present; however, large redevelopment sites may lack auto, pedestrian and bicycle infrastructureAppropriate TOD Characteristics• Higher density residential• Neighbourhood-serving street-oriented retail shops—grocery and drug stores and other anchor retail• Neighbourhood employment—professional offices and services• Neighbourhood urban parks• Street grid throughout• Improved pedestrian and bicycle connectivity through existing and surrounding neighbourhoods
  31. 31. Centre
  32. 32. Common Characteristics• Predominantly retail; existing uses may include shopping destinations Potential development sites consist mostly of parking lots or other low- intensity uses• Street grids typically absent; lacking pedestrian and bicycle access to residential areas• Regional auto access; adjacent to major roadwaysAppropriate TOD Characteristics• Primary shopping destination• Higher density residential housing coupled with park amenities• Neighbourhood employment—professional offices and services• Street grid within development site• Significant street-oriented retail uses• Maintain and strengthen existing retail.• Improved pedestrian and bicycle connectivity• to surrounding neighbourhoods
  33. 33. Employment
  34. 34. Common Characteristics• Predominantly undeveloped land or low intensity employment• Regional auto access; adjacent to major roadways• Street grid absent within development sites• Poor bicycle and pedestrian connectivity to existing residential areasAppropriate TOD Characteristics• Low-rise professional offices and services, such as corporate headquarters or research and development uses• Medical campus/hospital use• Major transit park & ride facility at select stations adjacent to major roadways• Street-oriented employment and neighbourhood serving retail.• Higher density residential uses• Street grid throughout development sites• Improved pedestrian and bicycle connectivity to surrounding neighbourhoods
  35. 35. Institutional/Recreation
  36. 36. Common Characteristics• Predominantly educational or medical campuses or regional-serving recreation facilities• Land use and circulation frameworks are dictated by campus master plans• Medical and educational campuses have high transit ridership throughout the day• Recreational uses have high peak ridership during events• Street grid may be absent throughout campus sites• Pedestrian and bicycle access within campus boundariesAppropriate TOD Characteristics• Maintain/strengthen existing campus and/or• recreation functions• Neighbourhood serving retail at stations— eating and drinking establishments, convenience retail, small grocery and drug stores• Improved pedestrian and bicycle connectivity
  37. 37. Downtown
  38. 38. Common Characteristics• A mix of uses is typical throughout• Development sites vary in size and location• Interconnected street grid• Pedestrian and bicycle improvements varyAppropriate TOD Characteristics• Maintain/strengthen existing transit supportive uses• Increase density
  39. 39. 42 DU/HA RESIDENTIALROW HOUSE
  40. 40. 63 DU/HA RESIDENTIALSTACKED ROW HOUSE
  41. 41. 125 DU/HA RESIDENTIALLOW-RISE APARTMENT
  42. 42. 225 DU/HA RESIDENTIALMID-RISE APARTMENT
  43. 43. YONGE ST. and DAVIS DR. looking south &Co., 2009
  44. 44. YONGE ST. and DAVIS DR. looking south &Co., 2009
  45. 45. YONGE ST. and DAVIS DR. looking south &Co., 2009
  46. 46. YONGE ST. and DAVIS DR. looking south &Co., 2009
  47. 47. YONGE ST. and DAVIS DR. looking south &Co., 2009
  48. 48. YONGE ST. and DAVIS DR. looking south &Co., 2009
  49. 49. DAVIS DR. looking west towards YONGE ST. &Co., 2009
  50. 50. DAVIS DR. looking west towards YONGE ST. &Co., 2009
  51. 51. DAVIS DR. looking west towards YONGE ST. &Co., 2009
  52. 52. DAVIS DR. looking west towards YONGE ST. &Co., 2009
  53. 53. DAVIS DR. looking west towards YONGE ST. &Co., 2009
  54. 54. DAVIS DR. looking west towards YONGE ST. &Co., 2009
  55. 55. Intersection of WESTIN and LAWRENCE, 1907
  56. 56. Brad BRADFORDPLANNER | Planning + Urban Design bbradford@designdialog.ca @bradplans

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