TELEVISION JOURNALISM By: Jeff Andersen & Alyssa Conklin
ORIGINS• In 1927, American John Logie Baird John Logie Baird invented the first successful mechanical-electric television system. Also went on to invent infrared television, stereoscopic television, and the earliest means of recording a television signal, which is known as Phonovision.• There were two other inventors who claimed they were inventors of the “First” or at least an early version of the television. These two inventors are Philo T. Farnsworth and Charles Francis Jenkins
Time Line1939 – RCA demonstrated a TV set toPresident Franklin Roosevelt.1945 – Less than 7,000 television sets aroundthe US.1948 – CBS TV news was started by DouglasEdwards, with Don Hewitt as the producer forthe news.1949 – KTLA’s 27-hour broadcast of therescue of Kathy Fiscus.1949 – Americans owned 1 million TV sets.1951 – Americans owned 10 million TV sets.
1952• National Association of Radio & Television Broadcasters ratifies new Television Code establishing guidelines for content and addressing the concerns of social critics. Nearly half the code is devoted to advertising.• In response to protests about program content, a House subcommittee investigates "offensive" and "immoral" TV programs and touches on wide range of topics -- from beer spots to dramas depicting suicide.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- sMfdNCGGhg Low Confidence Edward Murrow• Edward Murrow and CBS owner William Paley never saw the potential of Television news at first.• Paley saw no profit in it and William Paley thought it could hurt the radio news stations.• Murrow and his colleagues were writers who thought that Television was an entertaining median but could damage the journalistic principles.
THE MIGRATION• Westinghouse Broadcasting and KDKA in Pittsburgh, two radio pioneer companies began to transform into television with WDTV. They later were named KDKA and their first news report was a narrative voice over to a purchased film. They opened their first studio in November of 1950.• In Minnesota radio and news paper owners began intense competition between television stations which still continues today.• The first radio/newspaper to transform into television was Radio Station owner Stanley E. Hubbard who enthusiastically jumped into it and aired in April of 1948 named KSTP-TV.
CBS NEWS• Murrow and his colleagues Charles Collingwood, Dick Hitteler, Larry LeSueurm and Howard K. Smith covered the political conventions in Philadelphia during the year of 1948.• They used radio strategies drawn from their experiences on European Battlefields.• CBS, Life Magazine, and the Young & Rebicam advertising agency persuaded the delegates to stage a dramatic walkout for television so that it was more entertaining to the viewers.
VIETNAM WAR & TELEVISION JOURNALISM• Television emphasized violence and suffering inflicted by American Troops• They didn’t show identifiable bodies in case of families viewing. In these days film crew required 2-3 people: a photographer, reporter, sound technician• Liz Trotta -First female war correspondent• “You either get it or you don’t.” – in mist of shooting• Wanted “combat footage” – first combat footage to be sent back to U.S• Most dramatic pictures/ video footage taken by CBS correspondent Morley Safers on August 5, 1965• Reported on U.S Marines burning villages of Cam Ne, being light by Marines with cigarette lighters• President Johnson was outraged with these photos and said that Safer’s pictures, “Shat on American Flag.” He tried to accuse Safer that the story was fake and tried to get him fired.• 1968 Cronkite came back from a trip from Vietnam, and wanted to share what he had found. He pledged, “to be honest to U.S people, and defend democracy.”’• President Johnson stated, because he lost to Cronkite, he lost to the Nation.
PRESIDENCY & TELEVISION• Nixon had a love-hate relationship with American people Nixon/Kennedy Presidential Debate• Nixon vs. Kennedy in their first debate on September 26, 1960• Nixon was struck with illness and looked bad. Producers offered him makeup but refused.• Kennedy looked very refreshing and young; gave people the impression he was nice, young and good to lead the country.• Nixon looked old, worn out, sick which gave people impression he was mean and not ready to run the country.• People who heard the debate on radio believed Nixon won, but people who watched it believed that Kennedy won. * showing the power of television and looks. All of the debates on television boosted Kennedy’s campaign and in turn won the presidency http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw&feature=related
“60 MINUTES”Became the most successful television show ever debubted September 24, 1968 on CBS combined the “High Murrow” of See It Now’s
“NIGHTLINE” Debuted on March 24, 1980 First broadcasted hostage crisis in Middle EastIn late 1970’s ABC, NBC and CBS were competing for evening news times.
COMPETITION• CBS started to self-destruct from competition.• CNN• 24 hour news forced the networks to feed breaking stories.• Viewers paid attention during time of crisis• News room dependence on anchor personalities, dramatic video, high story counts, large advertising budgets. Television stressed time-sensitive stories, yielding an imbalance toward events that developed in the evening: crime, traffic and fires. They got into technological races with their competitors over who had the best weather equipment, helicopter reports, and satellite access.
THE VIDEO JOURNALISM REVOLUTION • TV news stations have created video journalists, also known as backpack journalists. They work solo and serve as both videographer and reporter on assignment. Print media, such as newspapers and magazines, are producing news videos for their websites. • Previously, if you wanted to make TV news, it was an expensive proposition. You needed a $35,000 camera and an even more expensive editing station, along with well-trained multiple person crews. Now, cheap digital video cameras and free video-editing software is abundant, and college students working alone can make TV broadcasts using just a a $175 camera and a laptop computer.http://money.cnn.com/video/technology/2011/11/11/t_bia_accelerator_silicon_valley.cnnmoney/?iid=SF_SB_River
Digtial Camera to filmLaptop to edit a news broadcast
THE SIGNIFICANT DECLINE OF NETWORK EVENINGS NEWS OVER THE PAST 25 YEARS• Theyre getting a fraction of the viewers they did two decades ago, even though the population has significantly increased. The reason is because viewers have so many more options now. 25 years ago, their only options were ABC, CBS, and NBC. Then CNN came on the scene and forever changed the playing field.
THE BOOM OF CABLE TELEVISION• There are many 24/h news channels, MSNBC, CNN, FOX News and Headline News.• New Specialized News channels have put a dent on the BIG THREE in TV news.• ESPN – Covers Sports• CNBC, Bloomberg Television – Covers business• BBC, Al Jazeera – Covers Foreign News• News 12, MSG Varsity – Covers Local News