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Program Management and Leadership
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Leadership styles

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  1. 1. Leadership Styles: Autocratic (Authoritarian) O does not consult employees for input O subordinates expected to obey orders without explanations O motivation provided through structured rewards and punishments O possess total authority and impose their will on employees O countries such as Cuba and North Korea operate under the autocratic leadership style. O this leadership style benefits employees who require close supervision. O Creative employees who thrive in group functions detest this leadership style.
  2. 2. "I WILL ALWAYS CHOOSE A LAZY PERSON TO DO A DIFFECULT JOB, BECAUSE HE WILL FIND AN EASY WAY TO DO IT" -Bill Gates "I'm not bossy I just know what you should be doing"
  3. 3. Leadership Styles: Bureaucratic O Manager manages “by the book¨ O If it isn’t covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her O Everything must be done according to procedure or policy O Police officer more than leader
  4. 4. Leadership Styles: Democratic
  5. 5. Leadership Styles: Democratic O Often referred to as participative style O Keeps employees informed O Shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities O “Coach” who has the final say, but… O Gathers information from staff members before making decisions O Leadership boosts employee morale because employees make contributions to the decision-making process.
  6. 6. Democratic Continued… O When a company needs to make changes within the organization, the participative leadership style helps employees accept changes easily because they play a role in the process. O This style meets challenges when companies need to make a decision in a short period. O Help employees evaluate their own performance O Allows employees to establish goals O Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted O Recognizes and encourages achievement O Can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time
  7. 7. "Leader don’t create more followers, they create more leaders" Tom Peters
  8. 8. Leadership Styles: Coercive OPower from a person’s authority to punish OMost obvious types of power a leader has. OGood leaders use coercive power only as a last resort: O In today’s sophisticated and complex workplace, excessive use of coercive power unleashes unpredictable and destabilizing forces which can ultimately undermine the leader using it.
  9. 9. When to use Coercive
  10. 10. Leadership Styles: Transactional O Motivate followers by appealing to their own self-interest O Motivate by the exchange process. O EX: business owners exchange status and wages for the work effort of the employee. O Focuses on the accomplishment of tasks & good worker relationships in exchange for desirable rewards. O Encourage leader to adapt their style and behavior to meet expectations of followers
  11. 11. Transactional Cont. O Managers using the transactional leadership style receive certain tasks to perform and provide rewards or punishments to team members based on performance results. O Managers and team members set predetermined goals together, and employees agree to follow the direction and leadership of the manager to accomplish those goals. O The manager possesses power to review results and train or correct employees when team members fail to meet goals. O Employees receive rewards, such as bonuses, when they accomplish goals.
  12. 12. Leadership Styles: Transformational O Charismatic and visionary O Inspire followers to transcend their self-interest for the organization O Appeal to followers' ideals and values O Inspire followers to think about problems in new or different ways O Common strategies used to influence followers include vision and framing
  13. 13. Transformational cont. O Instils feelings of confidence, admiration and commitment O Stimulates followers intellectually, arousing them to develop new ways to think about problems. O Uses contingent rewards to positively reinforce desirable performances O Flexible and innovative.
  14. 14. When to use Transformational O When leaders want members to be an active part of the organization and have ownership to it O When leaders are building a sense of purpose O When the organization has a long term plan O When people need to be motivated
  15. 15. "(He) possessed the gift of silence." (Comment by President John Adams about George Washington)
  16. 16. Leadership Styles: Laissez-Faire
  17. 17. Leadership Styles: Laissez-Faire O Also known as the “hands-off¨ style O Little or no direction O Gives followers as much freedom as possible O All authority or power is given to the followers O Followers must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.
  18. 18. O Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated O Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own O Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used O Employees are trustworthy and experienced When to use Laissez-Faire
  19. 19. Laissez-Faire
  20. 20. Other Referenced Theories Theory X and Theory Y O Theory X and Theory Y each represent different ways in which leaders view employees. O Theory X is the traditional view of direction and control by managers. O Theory Y is the view that individual and organizational goals can be integrated
  21. 21. Management/ Leader Tight control, lots of rules, no freedom Staff/ Followers
  22. 22. Staff/ Followers Lots of freedom, creativity & responsibility Management/ Leader
  23. 23. Other Referenced TheoriesOther Referenced Theories Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership OBased on the amount of direction (task- behavior) and amount of socio-emotional support (relationship-behavior) a leader must provide given the situation and the "level of maturity" of the followers.
  24. 24. Selecting a Style O Some people are motivated by reward O Some people are motivated by punishment O Social systems work best with a chain of command O When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede authority to their leader
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Leadership styles


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