powder metallurgy

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Crushing and milling methods to form powder

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powder metallurgy

  1. 1. Crushing and Milling Method to form Powder
  2. 2. Manufacturing of Metal Powders Some of the important methods are: 1. Atomization 2. Machining 3. Crushing and Milling 4. Reduction 5. Electrolytic Deposition 6. Shotting 7. Condensation
  3. 3.  Used for brittle materials.  Jaw crushers, stamping mills, ball mills - used to breakdown the metals.  In earlier stages of powder preparation gyratory crushers are used.  For fine powder, the metal particles are fractured by impact.
  4. 4. Main objective of milling • Particle size reduction (main purpose), • shape change , • solid state alloying, • mechanical or solid state mixing, • modification of material properties.
  5. 5. 1. Micro forging : Individual particles or group of particles are impacted repeatedly so that they flatten with very less change in mass 2. Fracture : Individual particles deform and cracks initiate and propagate resulting in fracture 3. Agglomeration : Mechanical interlocking due to atomic bonding or vander Waals forces. 4. Deagglomeration : Breaking of agglomerates.
  6. 6. Milling equipment: are generally classified as crushers & mills.
  7. 7. Ball mills •Contains cylindrical vessel rotating horizontally along the axis. •The vessel is charged with the grinding media(hardened steel, or tungsten carbide, porcelain, alumina). Important Parameters: 1. An optimum/critical speed is adjusted for maximum impact velocity. 2. The size and density of the milling medium is selected according to the deformation and fracture resistance for metals.
  8. 8. Vibratory ball mill  High amount of energy is imparted to the particles Milling being accelerated by vibrating the container.  Vibration frequency - 1500 to 3000 oscillations/min.  Amplitude of oscillations - 2 to 3 mm. The grinding bodies is made of steel or carbide balls, that are 10-20 mm in diameter. The mass of the balls is 8-10 times the charged particles.
  9. 9. Attrition mill  The charge is ground to fine size by the action of a vertical shaft with side arms attached to it.  The ball to charge ratio may be 5:1, 10:1, 15:1.  More efficient in achieving fine particle size.  In these mills the rotational speeds are nearly 6 – 80 rpm while the size of medium (balls) used is 3 – 6 mm.
  10. 10. Fluid energy grinding or Jet milling: The fluid used is either air about 0.7 Mpa or stream at 2 Mpa  The pressurized fluid is introduced into the grinding zone through specially designed nozzles which convert the applied pressure to kinetic energy.
  11. 11. Rod mills Horizontal rods are used instead of balls to grind. Granularity of the discharge material is 40-100 mm. The mill speed varies from 12 to 30 rpm.
  12. 12. 1. Rubbing action causes contamination of powder since balls may also get rubbed. 2. There is a possibility of excessive oxidation of final powder. 3. Quality of powder is poor. 4. Agglomeration may take place.

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