Report of design and development of multi purpose mechanical machine


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Report of design and development of multi purpose mechanical machine

  1. 1. GEC BHAVNAGARDesign &Development of“MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE”.A PROJECT REPORTSubmitted ByJitendraJha (090210119111)GautamParmar (090210119096)KumharSawarmal(100213119004)Vijay Kumar Mer(090210119047)In partial fulfillment for the award of the degreeOfBACHELOR OF ENGINEERINGInMECHANICALGuided byProf.H.N.JaniGOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGEGujarat Technological UniversityVidyanagar, Bhavnagar-364001
  2. 2. GEC BHAVNAGARGOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BHAVNAGARGujarat Technological UniversityVidyanagar, Bhavnagar-364001CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Mr.JitendraJha, Mr.GautamParmar,Mr.VijayKumarMerandMr.KumharSawarmalof BE VIII semester mechanicalengineering enrolment no 090210119111, 090210119096, 090210119047 and100213119004has satisfactory presented their project entitled “DEVLOPEMENTOF MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE” for the term ending in May2013Date:Internal Guide: - Head of DepartmentProf.H.N.Jani
  3. 3. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 1
  4. 4. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 2Acknowledgement We feel in great in presenting the report of our project “MUILTI PURPOSEMECHANICAL MACHINE” which finds application in much modern equipmentand system, this project is done in partial fulfilment of B.M.E. (Bech. inmechanical engineering) course at the G.E.C Bhavnagar. We wish to express our sincere gratitude and thanks to our guide professorMr.H.N.JANI. During our whole project work for his inspiration give to us andguidance showered open us. He was greatly helpful to us by solving all ourqueries and difficulties. We are also thankful to our head of the department ofmechanical engineering Last but not we are thankful to and all out lecturers who showered upon there helpand guidance during the project work and also our friends who always ready tohelp.
  5. 5. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 3ABSTRACTThis thesis deal with design,devlopment and fabrication of “MULTIPURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE”.This machine is designed for the purpose of MULTI-OPERATIONs i.e.DRILLING, CUTTING & SHAPING.This machine perform multipurpose operation at same time with requiredspeed & this machine is automatic which is controlled or operated by motorwhich is run with the help of current.This machine is based on the mechenism of whitworths return.This model of the multi OPERATIONAL machine is may be used in industries and domesticOPERATION which can perform mechanical operation like drilling, cutting &shaping of a thinmetallic as well as wooden model or body.
  6. 6. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 4LIST OF FIGURENo Figure Name Page No1 Whitworth’s Mechanism 92 3D View of MPMM 113 ACTUAL VIEW of MPMM 124 Drilling Machine 205 Shaping Machine 216 Cutting Machine 22
  7. 7. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 5LIST OF TABLESNo Table Name Page No1 Specification of drill 202 Specification of hacksaw 233 Project Cost 24
  8. 8. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 6TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgement………………………………… IAbstract …………………………………………… IIList of Figures ………………………………… IIIChapter: 1 Project Definition1.1 Problem statement…………………………. 81.2 Problem identification................................... 8Chapter: 2 Mechanism of MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICALMACHINE2.1 Objective……………………………………… 92.2 Theory………………………………………… 92.3 Whitworth’s Mechanism………………………. 10Chapter:3 Design of model3.1 Components…………………………………… 133.2 Calculation…………………………………… 143.3 Advantage……………………………………. 17Chapter:4 Operation of Machine4.1Drilling……………………………………….. 184.2Shaping……………………………………… 21
  9. 9. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 74.3Cutting……………………………………….. 22Chapter:5 Project Cost ………………………… 24Chapter:6 Future Implementation………………….. 25Chapter:7 Conclusion………………………………… 26Chapter:8Refrence…………………………………… 27
  10. 10. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 8Chapter: 1 PROBLEM DEFINITION1.1 Problem StatementTo design and development of MULTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE, astructured whichis designed for the purpose of MULTI-OPERATIONs i.e.DRILLING, CUTTING & SHAPING.1.2 Problem IdentificationThis machine perform multipurpose operation at same time with requiredspeed & this machine is automatic which is controlled or operated by motorwhich is run with the help of current.This machine is based on the mechenism ofwhit worths return.This model of the multi OPERATIONAL machine is may be used in industries and domesticOPERATION which can perform mechanical operation like drilling, cutting & shaping of a thinmetallic as well as wooden model or body.
  11. 11. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 9Chapter: 2 MECHANISM OF MACHINEWHITWORTH’S QUICK RETURN MECHANISM2.1 OBJECTIVEThe objective of this experiment is to investigate the performance of a whitworth quick turnmotion and to verify that the motion does have a quick return stroke and a slow cutting orforward stroke.2.2 THEORYDefinition of a mechanismMechanisms is a simplified model , usually in the form of a line diagram, whis is used toreproduse exactly the motion occuring in a machine. The purpose if this reproduction is to enablethe nature of the motion to be investigated without the encumbrance of the various solid bodieswhich forms the machine elements.2.3 WHITWORTH’S QUICK RETURN MECHANISMWhitworth’s mechanism
  12. 12. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 10The above diagram showa the mechanism as used on the apparatus. Link 1 on the top diagram isextended to point A.Aattach to point A is another link with pivot . The other end of this linkterminated in a slider. In a machine tool where this mechanism is used the cutting tool is attachedto this slider.The link POA rotates about a O. The mechanism is driven by crank PC ehich rotates a aboutCwith constant velocity. The slider at P slides allong POA as the crank is turned. Its path isshown by the dashed circle, centered on C and through P. Clearly when P is at P1 the slider S isat the outer extremity of its travel .When P is at P2 the slider S is at the inner extremity of itstravel.Now as PC rotates with constant velocity the time taken to go from P1 to P2 is less than thattaken to go from P2 to P1. However during both those time intervels the slider as moving thesame distance.Therefore the speed of S is different during the different patrs of cycle.During theshorter time intervals P1 to P2 the slider as has the greter speed and during the interval P2 to P1it has slower speed . Thus P1 to P2 is quick return and P2 to P1.When applied to metal cutting machine the other advantage is variable power distribution duringthe cycle .When S is on the return stroke the slider at P is nearer to O and simple moments showsthat the torque applied is low. Hence, the retutn stroke uses less power as P=T.w. During thecutting stroke the slider at P is at greater radius from O and thus more power is available toperform useful work in cutting metal.THUS THE OVERALL PERFORMANCE IS TO PROVIDE HIGH POWER FORWARDCUTTING STROKE WITH A LOW POWER AND HIGHER SPEED QUICK RETURNIN PREPARATION FOR THE NEXT CUT.
  13. 13. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 11Chapter: 3 DESIGN OF MODEL3D VIEW
  16. 16. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 143.2 CALCULATION1. Cutting/shaping SpeedSpeed ofmotor (Nm): 2400 rpmDiameter of pulley A : 25mmDiameter of pulley B : 160mmWe have to find out Bull wheel speed (Ns):We know that,NsNm=Da/DbNs=(Da/Db)*NmNs=(25/160)*2400 =375 rpmBull Wheel speed(Ns)=375rpm1 stroke of ram is completed in 1 revolution of crank wheel.K=1
  17. 17. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 15Velocity of sawing/Shaping Machine;Velocity(v)={L*N*(1+K)}/1000 m/minLength of Ram stroke(L)=50mmNumber of Full stroke(N)=200stroke/minRatio of return time to cutting time(K)=1Hence,V={L*N*(1+k)}/1000V={50*200*(1+1)}/1000V=20m/minTherefore, velocity or Ram(Cutting/shaping) is 20m/min.2. Drilling Speed:Speed of Pinion(Np) : 375rpmNo. of teeth Pinion (Tp) : 10No. of teeth Gear (Tg) : 18
  18. 18. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 16We have to find out Speed of gear (Ng)We know that,Ng/Np=Tp/TgNg=(Tp/Tg)*NpNg=(10/18)*375= 208 rpmTherefore, Drilling speed is 208rpm.
  19. 19. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 173.3ADVANTAGE Multi operations are performed at one time Our machine is used Return stroke (whit worth) mechanism The return stroke of shaper machine is utilized as cutting operation All operation is performed by only one motor Size is compact therefore it require less space Time saving Less man power is required Low manufacturing & maintenance cost
  20. 20. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 18Chapter: 4 OPERATION OF MACHINEOperation performs by machine:-1. DRILLING2. SHAPING3. CUTTING4.1DRILLINGDrilling is the operation of producing circular hole in the work-piece by using a rotatingcutter called DRILL. The machine used for drilling is called drilling machine. The drilling operation can also be accomplished in lathe, in which the drill is held intailstock and the work is held by the chuck. The most common drill used is the twist drill.Drilling Machine It is the simplest and accurate machine used in production shop. The work piece is held stationary ie. Clamped in position and the drill rotates to make ahole.
  21. 21. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 19Components of drillingmachine1. SpindleThe spindle holds the drill or cutting tools and revolves in a fixed position in a sleeve.2. SleeveThe sleeve or quill assembly does not revolve but may slide in its bearing in a directionparallel to its axis. When the sleeve carrying the spindle with a cutting tool is lowered, thecutting tool is fed into the work: and when it’s moved upward, the cutting tool is withdrawn fromthe work. Feed pressure applied to the sleeve by hand or power causes the revolving drill to cutits way into the work a fraction of an mm per revolution.3. ColumnThe column is cylindrical in shape and built rugged and solid. The column supports thehead and the sleeve or quill assembly.4. HeadThe head of the drilling machine is composed of the sleeve, a spindle, an electric motorand feed mechanism. The head is bolted to the column.5. WorktableThe worktable is supported on an arm mounted to the column. The worktable can beadjusted vertically to accommodate different heights of work or it can be swung completely outof the way. It may be tilted up to 90 degree in either direction, to allow long pieces to be end orangle drilled.6. BaseThe base of the drilling machine supports the entire machine and when bolted to thefloor, provides for vibration-free operation and best machining accuracy. The top of the base issimilar to the worktable and may be equipped with t- slot for mounting work too larger for thetable.7.Hand Feed
  22. 22. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 20The hand- feed drilling machines are the simplest and most common type of drilling machines inuse today. These are light duty machine that are operated by the operator, using a feed handled,so that the operator is able to “feel” the action of the cutting tool as it cuts through the workpiece. These drilling machines can be bench or floor mounted.8. Power feedThe power feed drilling machine are usually larger and heavier than the hand feed onesthey are equipped with the ability to feed the cutting tool in to the work automatically duty workor the work that uses large drills that require power feed larger work pieces are usually clampeddirectly to the table or base using t –bolts and clamps by a small work places are held in a vice. Adepth –stop mechanism is located on the head, near the spindle, to aid in drilling to a precisedepth.Drilling machineSpecification:-Drill size in mm Feed in mm/rev.3.2 & less 0.025-0.0503.2 to 6.4 0.050-0.106.4 to 12.7 0.10-0.1812.7 to 25.4 0.18-0.3825.4 & large 0.38-0.64
  23. 23. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 214.2SHAPINGThe shaping machine is used to machine flat metal surfaces especially where a large amount ofmetal has to be removed. Other machines such as milling machines are much more expensiveand are more suited to removing smaller amounts of metal, very accurately. The reciprocating motion of the mechanism inside the shaping machine can be seen in thediagram. As the disc rotates the top of the machine moves forwards and backwards,pushing a cutting tool. The cutting tool removes the metal from work which is carefullybolted down. The shaping machine is a simple and yet extremely effective machine. It is used toremove material, usually metals such as steel or aluminium, to produce a flat surface.However, it can also be used to manufacture gears such as rack and pinion systems andother complex shapes. Inside its shell/casing is a crank and slider mechanism that pushesthe cutting tool forward and returns it to its original position. This motion is continuous.SHAPING MACHINE
  24. 24. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 224.3CUTTINGA hacksaw is a fine-tooth saw with a blade held under tensionin a frame, usedfor cuttingmaterials such as metal or plastics. Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal arch with ahandle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. A screw or othermechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. The blade can be mounted with the teethfacing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pullstroke. On the push stroke, the arch will flex slightly, decreasing the tension on the blade.Blades are available in standardized lengths, usually 10 or 12 inches for a standard handhacksaw. "junior" hacksaws are half this size. Powered hacksaws may use large blades in a rangeof sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades.CUTTING OPERATIONSpecification of hacksawSize of hacksaw blade:-Thickness;-1.27-2.54 mmWidth;-25.40-50.80mmLength 304.80-609.60mm
  25. 25. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 23Work piece material Cutting speed in m/sMild Steel 0.75Cast Iron 0.50Brass/ Aluminum 1.5Bronze 1.25Thin section (pipes & tubes) 1.5
  26. 26. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 24Chapter : 5 COSTING OF PROJECTSr. No. Particulars Total Quantity CostRs./unit Total Coast1. Motor- 2400rpm 01 1500 15002. Bearing 6600 no. 04 80 3203. Bearing 60x100 01 450 4504. Gear & pinion 01 620 6205. Circular Plate(150mmdia) 04 85 3406. Screw nut Assembly 03 25 757. Iron angle thickness 3mm 12kg 80 9608. Pipe (20mm dia). 5feet 40 2009. Pulley(160mm dia) 01 270 27010. Pulley(20mm dia) 01 80 8011. Rope 01 30 3012. Drill Chuck 01 110 11013. Drill Tool(2.5mm) 01 20 2014. Hacksaw tool 01 20 2015. Shaping tool 01 15 1516. Welding Work -- 1200 120017. Paint 02 60 12018. Nut & bolt 02 10 2019. Lubricant 01 50 5020. Cable 01 20 2021. Transportation& Misc. Expenses -- 600 600TOTAL 7020rs
  27. 27. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 25Chapter: 6 FUTURE IMPLIMENTATION We can perform various operations like cutting , drilling or shapingindividually by introducing coupling ( engagement & disengagement )between them. We can perform Grinding operation by introducing a grinding tool at themain shaft. We can perform boring operation by introducing a boring tool byreplacing drilling tool. We can change the speed of motor by regulator.
  28. 28. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 26Chapter: 7 CONCLUSIONAfter completing the major project on “MUILTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE” weare much happy and would like to thank our professor, guides and the lectures of the concerneddepartment who have guided us.While making this project we have been able to learn a lot and understand the various aspects of“MUILTI PURPOSE MECHANICAL MACHINE” we can use our knowledge, which we getduring our study.
  29. 29. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 27Chapter: 8 ReferenceThe websites:
  30. 30. GEC BHAVNAGAR Page 28The Helpful Books: Workshop Technology(Hazrachaudhary) Theory of Machine (R.S.Khurmi) Machine Design Production Technology