Superconductor & Ultraconductor

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Superconductor & Ultraconductor

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION Conductor- any material or object that allows the flow of electricity. A basic necessity in most electrical or electronics circuit. However even the very best of conductors resist electricity and thus sometimes inhibit us to a limited range of application. The demand? “Zero resistance”. Bringing about one of the most significant scientific changes in science and technology: Superconductors.
  2. 2. PRINCIPLE OF SUPERCONDUCTVITY • Substances are cooled below a critical temperature. • Absence of electrical resistance. • Expulsion of magnetic field. • Quantum mechanical phenomenon. Electron will flow unimpeded by resistance continuing to flow forever
  3. 3. A BRIEF HISTORY • In 1911 discovery of superconductivity in mercury by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. (At approximate temp 4 K) • In 1933 Meissner effect in superconductor. • In 1986 George Bednorz and Alex Muller discovered ceramic oxides that super conduct at higher temperatures. • BCS Theory: The key to superconductivity.
  4. 4. SUPERCONDUCTORS • Materials that exhibit superconductivity below a critical temperature Tc. • Existence of a critical magnetic Field (Hc). Hc=H0[1-(T/Tc)] • Electron pairs (bosons).
  5. 5. MATERIALS
  6. 6. Chemical elements.(mercury,lead) Alloys(niobium-titanium) Ceramics(YBCO) Organic superconductors. (Carbon nanotubes, Fullerene)
  7. 7. PROPERTIES • Zero electrical resistance. • Meissner effect • Isotope effect (T=const/Ma) • Josephson junction • Tc directly proportional to applied pressure.
  8. 8. SUPERCONDUCTOR TYPE I • Exists in two states. • Only one critical magnetic field (Bc) • No presence of any intermediate states. • Soft super conductors. • Presence of complete Meissner effect. • Examples: Pb,Hg,Zn etc. Meissner
  9. 9. • Exists in two states along with a third intermediate state. • Two critical magnetic fields present (Bc1 ,Bc2). • Hard super conductors. • Partial presence of meissner effect. • Examples: Nb3Sn, Nb3Ge,Nb3Al. SUPERCONDUCTOR TYPE II
  10. 10. BCS THEORY • Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory formulated in 1957 • Bound state of electrons in superconductor. • Cooper pairs.
  11. 11. APPLICATIONS • Magnetic resource imaging. • SQUID • “maglev” • Cryotron • Computer memory devices.. • RSFQ
  12. 12. DISADVANTAGE • Very high electric current destroys superconductivity. • Need for cryogenic support. • Non economical. • Sensitive to moving magnetic Fields.
  13. 13. ULTRACONDUCTORS A new revolution.
  14. 14. • Room temperature superconductors. • Processed from polar dielectric polymers. • Absence of heat generation. • Light weight and economical. • Scope of faster computers. • Ultraconducting wires revolutionising the electrical grid. • Patented product, being developed keeping commercialization in mind. ULTRACONDUCTORS
  15. 15. ULTRACONDUCTING POLYMERS • Thin films of approx (1-100 microns). • Fabricated from polymers such as: • Olefin • Acrylate • Silicon based blastics. • Very high electrical conductivity (> 1011 S/cm -1) • Highly efficient and lightweight.
  16. 16. • Superconductors are a topic of extensive worldwide research. They are the underlying science behind many new technologies like the carbon nanotubes.The sheer brilliance of this object is yet to be applied to full use. If ultra conductors are fully commercialized it would enhance the contribution of its predecessor. Energy is endangered and any technology that strives for a better handlement of electrical power and energy strives for the betterment of mankind as a whole. CONCLUSION
  17. 17. REFERENCE • Concepts of modern Physics- Arthur Beisher. • Introduction to superconductivity-Michael Tinkham. • www.superconductors.org • www.chavaenergy.com
  18. 18. THANK YOU 

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