Conductor- any material or object that allows the
flow of electricity. A basic necessity in most
electrical or electronics circuit. However even the
very best of conductors resist electricity and thus
sometimes inhibit us to a limited range of
application. The demand? “Zero resistance”. Bringing
about one of the most significant scientific changes
in science and technology: Superconductors.
PRINCIPLE OF SUPERCONDUCTVITY
• Substances are cooled below a critical
• Absence of electrical resistance.
• Expulsion of magnetic field.
• Quantum mechanical phenomenon.
Electron will flow unimpeded by resistance continuing to flow forever
A BRIEF HISTORY
• In 1911 discovery of superconductivity in mercury by
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. (At approximate temp 4 K)
• In 1933 Meissner effect in superconductor.
• In 1986 George Bednorz and Alex Muller discovered
ceramic oxides that super conduct at higher
• BCS Theory: The key to superconductivity.
• Materials that exhibit superconductivity below a
critical temperature Tc.
• Existence of a critical magnetic
• Electron pairs (bosons).
SUPERCONDUCTOR TYPE I
• Exists in two states.
• Only one critical magnetic field (Bc)
• No presence of any intermediate states.
• Soft super conductors.
• Presence of complete Meissner effect.
• Examples: Pb,Hg,Zn etc.
• Exists in two states along with a third
• Two critical magnetic fields present
• Hard super conductors.
• Partial presence of meissner effect.
• Examples: Nb3Sn, Nb3Ge,Nb3Al.
SUPERCONDUCTOR TYPE II
• Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory
formulated in 1957
• Bound state of electrons in
• Cooper pairs.
• Room temperature superconductors.
• Processed from polar dielectric polymers.
• Absence of heat generation.
• Light weight and economical.
• Scope of faster computers.
• Ultraconducting wires revolutionising the electrical grid.
• Patented product, being developed keeping
commercialization in mind.
• Thin films of approx (1-100
• Fabricated from polymers such as:
• Silicon based blastics.
• Very high electrical conductivity
(> 1011 S/cm -1)
• Highly efficient and lightweight.
• Superconductors are a topic of extensive
worldwide research. They are the underlying
science behind many new technologies like the
carbon nanotubes.The sheer brilliance of this
object is yet to be applied to full use. If ultra
conductors are fully commercialized it would
enhance the contribution of its predecessor.
Energy is endangered and any technology that
strives for a better handlement of electrical
power and energy strives for the betterment of
mankind as a whole.
• Concepts of modern Physics- Arthur Beisher.
• Introduction to superconductivity-Michael