Educational Programs andApproaches for Students with
ID and LD
Zara, Zaida Rojeen
“Children with intellectual disabilities are those
who are challenged, need to be heard. To be seen not
as a disabled, but as a person who has and will
continue to bloom. To be seen not only as having a
handicap, but as a whole human being.”
Robert M. Hensel
(retrieved from www.wow4u.com , July 16,2012,)
The term learning disabilities was only
founded in 1963 by Samuel Kirk. At that time,
children with LD were referred to by such
were served in classrooms for students with
MR or in most cases, were not receiving any
specialized services in the public schools.
Models of earlyintervention for Students
with ID and LD
Early Intervention Model
• a tool for detecting, addressing and
solving different problems in a work
community and the entire
organization. Early intervention
creates a caring and supportive
atmosphere, and it is a part of the
safety net of a functional work unit.
A Hybrid Model for LDIdentification
• Hybrid Model – Combination of
– Naturalistic Intervention
• Learning Theory + Developmental Theory
– Uses incidental teaching model to promote specific skills in
the context of child-initiated, developmentally appropriate
– Relationship Focused Intervention
• Ecological Theory + Developmental Theory
– Focus on enhancing the quality of parent-child interaction
(e.g., parental responsiveness) as a means of encouraging
children’s participation in developmentally appropriate
activities and experiences
0 to 3
Center-based: Families bring their infant or
toddler to a program at an agency setting
where appropriate services are provided by
professionals and paraprofessionals.
Intervention sessions are scheduled either on
an individual basis or in small groups.
Home-based: Individualized to meet the child's
needs with whatever resources are available in
Regular child-care settings: ”Normalized"
settings which provide opportunities for
Program Models: Preschool
• Integrated preschool settings: ”Normalized"
settings which provide opportunities for
integration; special education teacher is either
full-time staff member or a consultant to the early
• Segregated preschool settings: this is usual for
children from 3 to 5 because most public school
systems don't provide services for typical kids at
Head Start: 10% of children have disabilities; but
very few children with severe/profound MR are
• Regular classroom with supportive services
• Resource Room Placement: “pull-out”
• Special Class Placement
• Special Day School Placement
• Homebound Programs
• Other Domiciled Settings
• Residential Settings
Multidisciplinary: Professionals work independently evaluating and
serving the client in their own domains. Each applies the expertise and
techniques of his or her discipline in isolation of what professionals in
other disciplines are doing concurrently with a child or parent. Little or
no interaction or ongoing communication occurs among professionals
dealing with the same client.
Interdisciplinary: Professionals form various disciplines work together
cooperatively in both planning and delivering services to the child or
parent. Emphasis is upon teamwork and interaction among team
members, who help and rely upon each other to provide well-
coordinated, integrated services for he individual, although each
discipline ultimately delivers the service in its own domain.
Transdisciplinary: Professionals from various disciplines work together
cooperatively by educating one another in the skills and practice of their
disciplines so that one team member can act as the single agent for
carrying out services with a designated child or parent.
Educational Approach for Students
with ID andLD
1. Break down learning tasks into smaller steps and
introduce each learning task, one step at a time,
to avoid overwhelming the pupil
Demonstrate the steps.
Provide assistance if
Once mastered, the next
step is introduced.
2. Be as concrete as possible.
Demonstrate what you mean rather
than just giving verbal directions.
Most of the learners are kinesthetic.
They learn best by performing a task
“hands-on”, rather than by thinking
about it in the abstract.
3. Give immediate feedback in
order to make a connection
between their answers,
behaviors, or questions, and the
4. Teach the pupil life
skills such as daily
living, social skills, and
and exploration, as
appropriate. Involve the
pupils in group activities.
5. Work together with the pupils’
parents and other school personnel
to create and implement an
educational plan tailored to meet the
• Michael G. (2006) Early Intervention for Children with Intellectual
Disabilities: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects* Retrieved June
• Bradley, R., Danielson, L. E., & Hallahan, D. P. (2002). Identification of
learning disabilities: Research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
• The General Educator’s Guide to Special Education, Jody L. Maanum