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Models of early intervention for students


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Models of early intervention for students

  1. 1. Educational Programs andApproaches for Students with ID and LD Acebo, Noreen Zara, Zaida Rojeen
  2. 2. OVERVIEW “Children with intellectual disabilities are those who are challenged, need to be heard. To be seen not as a disabled, but as a person who has and will continue to bloom. To be seen not only as having a handicap, but as a whole human being.” Robert M. Hensel (retrieved from , July 16,2012,)
  3. 3. The term learning disabilities was only founded in 1963 by Samuel Kirk. At that time, children with LD were referred to by such terms as: “perceptually handicapped,” “brain-injured,” and “neurologically impaired” were served in classrooms for students with MR or in most cases, were not receiving any specialized services in the public schools. OVERVIEW
  4. 4. Models of earlyintervention for Students with ID and LD
  5. 5. Early Intervention Model • a tool for detecting, addressing and solving different problems in a work community and the entire organization. Early intervention creates a caring and supportive atmosphere, and it is a part of the safety net of a functional work unit.
  6. 6. A Hybrid Model for LDIdentification • Hybrid Model – Combination of Theories – Naturalistic Intervention • Learning Theory + Developmental Theory – Uses incidental teaching model to promote specific skills in the context of child-initiated, developmentally appropriate activities – Relationship Focused Intervention • Ecological Theory + Developmental Theory – Focus on enhancing the quality of parent-child interaction (e.g., parental responsiveness) as a means of encouraging children’s participation in developmentally appropriate activities and experiences
  7. 7. ProgramModels: 0 to 3 Center-based: Families bring their infant or toddler to a program at an agency setting where appropriate services are provided by professionals and paraprofessionals. Intervention sessions are scheduled either on an individual basis or in small groups. Home-based: Individualized to meet the child's needs with whatever resources are available in the home. Regular child-care settings: ”Normalized" settings which provide opportunities for integration.
  8. 8. Program Models: Preschool • Integrated preschool settings: ”Normalized" settings which provide opportunities for integration; special education teacher is either full-time staff member or a consultant to the early childhood educator • Segregated preschool settings: this is usual for children from 3 to 5 because most public school systems don't provide services for typical kids at this age.  Head Start: 10% of children have disabilities; but very few children with severe/profound MR are served.
  9. 9. ProgramModels: School Aged • Regular classroom with supportive services • Resource Room Placement: “pull-out” • Special Class Placement • Special Day School Placement • Homebound Programs • Other Domiciled Settings • Residential Settings
  10. 10. TeamModels Multidisciplinary: Professionals work independently evaluating and serving the client in their own domains. Each applies the expertise and techniques of his or her discipline in isolation of what professionals in other disciplines are doing concurrently with a child or parent. Little or no interaction or ongoing communication occurs among professionals dealing with the same client. Interdisciplinary: Professionals form various disciplines work together cooperatively in both planning and delivering services to the child or parent. Emphasis is upon teamwork and interaction among team members, who help and rely upon each other to provide well- coordinated, integrated services for he individual, although each discipline ultimately delivers the service in its own domain. Transdisciplinary: Professionals from various disciplines work together cooperatively by educating one another in the skills and practice of their disciplines so that one team member can act as the single agent for carrying out services with a designated child or parent.
  11. 11. Educational Approach for Students with ID andLD
  12. 12. 1. Break down learning tasks into smaller steps and introduce each learning task, one step at a time, to avoid overwhelming the pupil Demonstrate the steps. Provide assistance if necessary. Once mastered, the next step is introduced.
  13. 13. 2. Be as concrete as possible. Demonstrate what you mean rather than just giving verbal directions. Most of the learners are kinesthetic. They learn best by performing a task “hands-on”, rather than by thinking about it in the abstract.
  14. 14. 3. Give immediate feedback in order to make a connection between their answers, behaviors, or questions, and the teacher’s responses
  15. 15. 4. Teach the pupil life skills such as daily living, social skills, and occupational awareness and exploration, as appropriate. Involve the pupils in group activities.
  16. 16. 5. Work together with the pupils’ parents and other school personnel to create and implement an educational plan tailored to meet the pupils’ needs.
  17. 17. References • Michael G. (2006) Early Intervention for Children with Intellectual Disabilities: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects* Retrieved June 6,2014 from • Bradley, R., Danielson, L. E., & Hallahan, D. P. (2002). Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. • The General Educator’s Guide to Special Education, Jody L. Maanum (2nd Edition,2004)
  18. 18. Thank You!