Chapter 1. Introduction Section 1. VygotskyVygostsky ; Social Development Theory 1. Vygotsky awakes our eyes to the powerful role of culture and community in learning. His theory presents the radical idea that our much thought and intelligence is really not our own. Cultural tools are not inherited genetically. It’s the product of history and culture. In summary, Individuals construct meaning through their interaction with others 2. Vygotsky presents a complex theory regarding the processes of thought and language. The main premise of Vygotskys most famous work is the interrelationship between thought and that most universal of cultural tools - language. Language is the mother of all mental tools. He maintained that thought is internalized language. As we internalize these tools we become smarter. 3. We internalize these tools as we work in our Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). ZPD means the gap between actual and potential development. He believed that students must be taught information within their ZPD to develop a relationship with the material, then the scaffolding must be taken away to fully form an understanding. Scaffolding means "a form of support for the development and learning of children and young people". Section 2. PiagetPiaget ; Cognitive Development Theory 1. Piagets stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. A. He believed that child cannot undertake certain tasks until they are psychologically mature enough to do. He proposed that childrens thinking does not develop entirely smoothly: instead, there are certain points at which it "takes off" and moves into completely new areas and capabilities. Stages of Cognitive Development
Stage Characterized by Sensori-motor Differentiates self from objects (Birth-2 years) Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise Achieves object permanence: realizes that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley) Pre- Learns to use language and to represent objects operational by images and words. (2-7 years) Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of color Concrete Can think logically about objects and events. operational (7-11 years) Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size. Formal Can think logically about abstract propositions operational and test hypotheses systemically (11 years and up) Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems2. Piaget also highlighted assimilation and accommodation. children adapt to the world through assimilation and accommodation Assimilation is the process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit. Accommodation is the difference made to ones mind or concepts by the process of assimilation.
3. Schema (or scheme) The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together.Piagets Key Ideas Adaptation What it says: adapting to the world through assimilation and accommodation Assimilation The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit. Accommodation The difference made to ones mind or concepts by the process of assimilation. Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you cant have one without the other. Classification The ability to group objects together on the basis of common features. Class Inclusion The understanding, more advanced than simple classification, that some classes or sets of objects are also sub-sets of a larger class. (E.g. there is a class of objects called dogs. There is also a class called animals. But all dogs are also animals, so the class of animals includes that of dogs) Conservation The realization that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different.
Decentration The ability to move away from one system of classification to another one as appropriate. Egocentrism The belief that you are the centre of the universe and everything revolves around you: the corresponding inability to see the world as someone else does and adapt to it. Not moral "selfishness", just an early stage of psychological development. Operation The process of working something out in your head. Young children (in the sensori-motor and pre-operational stages) have to act, and try things out in the real world, to work things out (like count on fingers): older children and adults can do more in their heads. Schema (or The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, scheme) ideas, and/or actions, which go together. Stage A period in a childs development in which he or she is capable of understanding some things but not othersChapter 2. Comparison Section 1. SimilaritiesSimilarities between Vygotsky and Piaget 1. Piaget and Vygotsky are both Constructivists who had an approach to teaching and learning based on the premise that cognition is the result of "mental construction" 2. They focused on the mechanisms by which individuals develop higher cognitive processes. They were both enormously significant contributors to the cognitive development component of Psychology. They analyzed particular development processes responsible for complex cognitive functioning. 3. Learning is affected by the context in which an idea is taught as well as by students beliefs and attitudes 4. The boundaries of cognitive growth were established by societal influences.
Section 2. DifferencesDifferences between Vygotsky and Piaget 1. Piaget emphasized the growth of logical thinking as the goal of cognitive development, but Vygotsky described the transformation of simple perception, involuntary attention, and simple memory into categorical perception. 2. Piaget insisted that learning happens after development while Vygotsky pointed out that learning takes place before development can occur. 3. Vygotsky believed that development can’t be detached from social context unlike Piaget. Vygotsky focused on the role of culture in cognitive development, the role of egocentric theory, and the pivotal role of school subjects. Piaget did not believe in the significance of inputs that can be acquired from the environment but Vygotsky was confident that kids do acknowledge the inputs from their environment. Piaget regarded knowledge as changing body of knowledge, individually constructed in social world. But, Vygotsky regarded knowledge as changing body of knowledge, mutually constructed with others. 4. Vygotsky claimed that language plays an important role in cognitive development. Piaget only viewed language as a plain milestone in development. 5. Vygotsky thought that students learn collaborative construction of socially, culturally defined knowledge and values through socially and culturally constructed opportunities, tying to students’ experience. Piaget thought that peers are not necessarily encouraged, but can stimulate thinking, raise questions. Vygotsky thought that peers assume part of knowledge construction, contribute to definition of knowledge, and help define opportunities for learning. 6. Piaget believed that instructors help learners to challenge thinking toward more complete understanding. Vygotsky believed that instructors help learners to co-construct knowledge with students by sharing expertise and understanding. 7. Compared to Piaget, Vygotsky placed greater emphasis on the role of make-believe play in that it provides opportunities for the child to extend his or her behavior beyond that of his or her average age.
8. Piaget thought that students learn active construction, restructuring prior knowledge through multiple opportunities and diverse processes to connect to what is already know. 9. Piaget’s cognitive development theory has four evident phases. Vygotsky assumed that there are no set of stages at all but only 3 components. 10. Piaget viewed role of teachers as facilitator, guide. Vygotsky viewed role of teachers as mediator, mentor. Piaget thought that teachers create opportunities for interacting with meaningful ideas, materials, others. Vygotsky thought that teachers construct with students opportunities for interacting with meaningful ideas, materials, others. 11. Piaget viewed role of students as active construction within mind. Vygotsky viewed role of students as active co-construction with others and self-negotiating meaning. Piaget thought that teachers create opportunities for interacting with meaningful ideas, materials, others. Vygotsky thought that teachers construct with students opportunities for interacting with meaningful ideas, materials, others. Section 3. Pros and ConsPros and cons of Vygotsky’s theoryPros 1. The theory pays considerable attention to student’s relationship with others. Parents, teacher, peer have effects on student’s learning ability by not just giving learning environment or delivering knowledge but facilitating his/her learning. 2. He emphasized social-cultural context because society shares its cognitive goals with the learner, and the learner shapes the environment. 3. It acknowledges differences between individuals within the same culture and between people from different cultures. 4. His effort to revaluate the importance of language in cognitive development helps the instructor to use language as a method of facilitating.
Cons 1. Teacher’s roll as facilitator has possibility that hinder the learner’s spontaneity. If collaboration with peers and guidance from instructor are too helpful, the learner might lean on them expecting they do all the things instead of themselves. 2. Just recognizing children’s zone of proximal development does not help the instructor in understanding their exact level of ability and learning style or other children’s level of development. Simply assessing children’s zone is incomplete developmental picture. 3. There’s no specific standard to measure ZPD and no deep research on the generality and stability of the learner’s zone. 4. There’s less information about children’s development level, needs, and interests along with ages.Pros and cons of Piaget’s theoryPros 1. Instructor can provide high quality education for students by teaching sophisticated knowledge to students. 2. Thanks to piagets theory, we can define that childrens way of thinking is different to adults. 3. He provide important and wide viewpoint about childrens cognitive development. 4. He clarify developmental process of childrens reasoning skills about science and mathematicsCons 1. Piaget overlooked childrens cultural differences. 2. Piaget excessively generalized extensive social and emotional phenomenon . 3. At pre-operational stage and concrete operation stage, theorys concept that changes depending on students age cant be clarified clearly.
4. Piaget defined cognitive development theory that is restricted to adolescenceChapter 3. Application Section 1. StrategyThere are no explicit principles of instruction from both piaget and vygotsky’s theory. So, mostinstructional principles are developed by other instructors based on their writings.Basic principles of Vygotsky’s social development theory 1. The instructor must understand student’s zone of proximal development [ZPD] and provide appropriate level of instruction. Students can learn from instructor because instructor can is both model and mentor. When instructor leads students to right direction and share his/her own problem solving experiences, student can construct their own way of ability to deal with the task. The instructor can use scaffolding and reciprocal teaching. 2. Playing and studying with peers should be encouraged. Students work better when they collaborate with peers. They learn how to work with other people and develop language skills by using more complex and high level language skills to communicate with peers. Sharing different experiences and ways of thinking help them to form more deep and broad skills for problem solving.Basic principles of piaget’s cognitive social development theory 1. Instructor should encourage students to explore and construct their own knowledge. Instructor can facilitate student by providing environment with many activities which designed based on assimilation, accommodation. The learner should constructs knowledge through self-directed and peer-collaborative. Just teaching knowledge with abstract language, especially when students try to learn mathematics and science is not helping. Teacher’s role is to create and organize situations that students can solve their problems in their ways and ask meaningful questions. 2. Providing peer-collaborative activities help students to construct more sophisticated and high levels of thinking. Piaget especially emphasized communication between peers. Children learn from others by generating problems, investigating questions, and examining their answers. Through collaboration they learn new ways of recognize situation.
3. Curriculum based on stages of cognitive development can help the learner to go to the next level. Although there are some individual gap between learners’ cognitive development, based on Piaget’s theory, stages of cognitive development based on children’s age can be helpful in designing curriculum. With this curriculum, children can develop their cognitive structure more specifically. Section 1. StrategyDesign plans of Vygotsky’s theory 1. Scaffolding can be useful when instructor helps the child in his/her ZPD so the child can reach to new level. Ji young, who is a teacher of this math class, scaffolds a lesson by presenting information on multiplying fractions and showing a few examples where she shows multiply fractions on the chalk board. Then Ji young puts a few more fraction- multiplication problems on the board and asks Joo kyoung, Ji hyun, and Yeon ji, who are the students of this class, to help solve the problems by talking them through the process as a group. Finally, Ji young gives the students a few more problems where they have to multiply fractions on their own. In this way, Ji young took the students from not knowing anything about multiplying fractions to knowing how to do it on their own; Ji young brought them through the zone of proximal development. 2. Learning and development is a social, collaborative activity. – Joo kyung, who is a teacher of this class, splits the children into groups of four. Because Vygotsky believed that children can learn from teachers and peers, and either a teacher or peer can fill the role of the "More Knowledgeable Other.", Joo kyung puts more intelligent children like Ji young with less intelligent ones like Yeon ji to ensure that there is a "More Knowledgeable Other" figure within the group. 3. School learning should occur in a meaningful context, using technology. Yeon ji who are taking in an economics class can take the roles of national leaders in a computer simulation of economic decisions. Ji hyun who are taking a a geography class studying American can take a simulated trip around the country and use desktop publishing software to create a newsletter complete with scanned photographs and charts about the county. 4. Relate out-of-school experience to the child’s school experience is important.
Children can experience out range of school like police station and public park. This learning can be done field trips. Students and teacher go together that place and experience. For example, in police station students put on police uniform and act like a police. They manage traffic situation or catch someone who dont observe the traffic signal on experience system. Also, they go to public park and observe live things and record about their features. For instance, if students observe the flowers, they record the size, collar, shape, etc. by doing this, students can apply what they learned in class and can remember easily than just reading or hearing.Design plans of Piaget’s theory 1. Class for children in stage of sensori-motor must include activities that children can touch, move, watch, and respond to something so they can develop new cognitive schema. Ji hyun and Yeon ji who are 5-years-old children continued their egocentric thinking so they had trouble many times. Ji young, the teacher became concerned and came out with new solution. She made two girls do role-play being each other’s position. As a result, they started to understand each other. 2. At concrete stage, it is important that children should test their knowledge structure in real problem, grasp problem and solve immediate problem through newly formed knowledge structure. Teacher whose name is Ji young give an assignment to 8-year-old Joo kyung. So, Joo kyung has to group airplane, car, and ship into one category. Although she thought these transportations respectively by this time, finally she realizes that three transportations can belong in one category. 3. At operational stage, it is important that children should state abstract problem and infer possibilities which can solve that problem. Also it is necessary that children can should test possibilities actually, observe result, and compare own result with other’s. These days, Ji hyun is interested in social and political issues. So Yeon ji gets Ji hyun to make her blogs where she can share her thoughts with many people in cyber space. Through this activity, she can know others thinking and enlarge her thought.
Chapter 4. Implication Section 1. VygotskyImplications of Vygotsky’s social development theory 1. Language is important factor to learning. Because speech begins as a means of communication and socializing, later becomes a tool of thinking. Especially, to improve inner language that is intellectual stage, learners have to use self-regulated attention when they thinking. 2. In vygotsky theory, instructor provides complementary instruction and proper scaffolding in ZPD. So instructor can implement one or more strategies to determine a child’s readiness for developing particular cognitive process. This is not a direct instruction that only give knowledge but indirect instruction that emphasizes cooperation, support for learners. 3. Social interaction and social culture are important to cognitive development. Specifically, mastering the signs and symbols of the culture is important. Also, communication and interaction with others is main process for learning. Section 2. PiagetImplications of Piaget’s cognitive development theory 1. Intelligence is an ongoing and changing process, and the activity of the learner creates the process of knowing. In this point, the concept of disequilibrium (=cognitive conflict)is important factor for learner. Learners can achieve cognitive development by equaling this disequilibrium.
2. In Piaget theory, it focuses on children so it provides many descriptions of aspects through the child’s perspective. Especially, stages of cognitive development provide to instructor how to teach learners effectively.3. It emphasizes to give a chance for learners to experiment or interact with others. In this process they experience assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration. By doing this, they can reach desired goals.