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Uses and GratificationsThere are 5 common uses and gratifications associated with Media, those being:-escapism, entertainm...
Media Dependency Theory• Created by Sandra Ball-Rokeach and Melvin DeFleur in 1976 this aimed to  show the need for Media ...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of       Needs        Maslow’s Hierarchy of is a motivational theory        created in 1943. This theor...
The Hypodermic Needle       Theory• The "hypodermic needle theory" created in the  1920s implies that media has a direct e...
The Two Step FlowThe two-step flow was created by Paul Lazarsfeld in 1944when he discovered that personal contact was much...
Key theories
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Key theories

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Key theories

  1. 1. Uses and GratificationsThere are 5 common uses and gratifications associated with Media, those being:-escapism, entertainment, surveillance, personal identity and public relations. All ofthese give and insight into how a consumer engages with the chosen medium.• Escapism: Using a media outlet in order to create an alternative reality, this acts as a distraction from their issues; this is present in a person immersing themselves in the internet in order to escape• Surveillance: People can view media as a way of gaining information on surrounding world events such as reading a newspaper, learning through reading/watching or even to satisfy your natural curiosity. (E.g. Gossip) The Two Step Flow theory could also be influenced by this. Personal Relations: People often form friendships based upon their similar preferences; likes and dislikes, this is also present in media texts(music, film and celebrity) we can use these for social interaction and to integrate into society and friendships. Personal Identity: Your personality is made up of many inputs, a major one is that of media, your personal identity can be construed from a particular celebrity or social group, viewing media can help insight you on these aspects.• Entertainment: the main form of interacting with media texts, this can include filling in time, cultural enjoyment or perhaps escaping reality(escapism).
  2. 2. Media Dependency Theory• Created by Sandra Ball-Rokeach and Melvin DeFleur in 1976 this aimed to show the need for Media communications and its effect upon its audience. This is done through incorporating psychological theories with elements of the Uses and Gratifications Theory. Previously the theories focused upon effects of the media but this tends to focus upon reception.• Like the Uses and Gratifications theory this theory works on a basis that Media helps with integration in society and achieving aspirations but the need for the use of media is proposed as influenced upon the state of affairs surrounding the person rather than a constant need for media dependency.
  3. 3. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of is a motivational theory created in 1943. This theory argues that while people aim to meet basic needs they also seek to fulfil the higher of the hierarchy. Maslow felt as though conditioning theories did not adequately understand human behaviour and presented his idea that human actions are directed toward goal attainment with certain behaviours satisfying several functions simultaneously. Although, criticisms have been made about the vagueness of what “deficiency” is and that it varies from person to person making this theory too obscure to be reasonably recognised. This model also shows that we can fulfil most needs other than basics through social media. Supporting the theories of Web 2.0 but also the Uses and Gratifications theory.
  4. 4. The Hypodermic Needle Theory• The "hypodermic needle theory" created in the 1920s implies that media has a direct effect on its audience and can easily influence large groups of people by ‘injecting’ them with messages to alter their opinions. This is done by the creation of a link between the highly influential ‘Opinion leader’ and the passive ‘Opinion Receivers’ who cannot escape the effects of the media. After analysis of the theory showed that the majority of people remained uninfluenced by the propaganda of the media and interaction produced more influence than the media.
  5. 5. The Two Step FlowThe two-step flow was created by Paul Lazarsfeld in 1944when he discovered that personal contact was muchmore influential than that of media sources. This waslater developed into the two-step flow theory of masscommunication. First, opinion leaders receive andinterpret the information of mass media whilst mixingtheir own opinions with the content and then pass on thisinformation to those less receptive of media influence.The two-step flow theory has improved ourunderstanding of how mass media influence therecipients to create more direct and successful mediacampaigns.

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