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Post war period


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Post war period

  1. 1. Post War Period 1945 - 1965
  2. 2. Immediate Problems Devastation of the economy Breakdown of social order  Criminality  Influx of migrants from the provinces 1946 – Roxas defeated Osmena in the 1946 elections (LP wing) Believed that RP could not stand without US assistance Solution – US grants/loans to finance reconstruction of private corporations = increased production = decreased prices and unemployment = contain radicalism
  3. 3. Issues Backpay Collaboration – creation of People’s Court, eventually all elites were pardoned by Roxas Rehabilitation and reconstruction  US$ 620M for highways, ports and harbors; $100M for surplus military equipment, $400M for compensation  Japanese reparation
  4. 4. Bell Trade Act (October 1945) 8 more years of duty free trade 20 years gradual imposition of tariff (1954 – 1974); 5% annual increase RP products limited by quota US president could impose absolute sanctions if US products threatened RP has no such powers Peso pegged at $1 – P4
  5. 5. Parity Rights US citizens can acquire lands, mining rights, fishing grounds and ownership of public utilities Amend the 1935 Constitution – 60%Filipino ownership Democratic Alliance and Nacionalista Party opposed it
  6. 6. Military bases Signing of Military Bases Agreement – free use of 23 base sites for 99 years  Can expand, exchange, acquire and relinquish them Also the Mutual Defense Treaty
  7. 7. US MILITARY PRESENCE Cornerstone of RP-US relations – everything revolved around the bases From “love-hate” to “give and take” relationship Why RP – location, technical skills and cheap manpower, entertainment etc. US provided military equipment, training, support etc. Irritants – criminal jurisdiction, “war economy,” dependence, social costs Same issues with other countries hosting US bases End of the bases Present state of US military presence
  8. 8. HUKS Prewar agrarian conditions – this time fueled by secular ideology Marxism-Leninism and Communist International with Moscow as the undisputed leader Differentiation between party, movement and later on army From HUKBALAHAP to HMB Lava bros. – “revolutionary situation” vis-a-vis Taruc’s “revolutionary atmosphere” Decline and lessons learned Huk/PKP ≠ CPP/NPA/NDF
  9. 9. Political Elites Developmental state vs. Predatory state They are the gold and provide the guns Emergence – archipelagic nature, weak state, transition from colonialism to independence Persistence – “transmission belt”  Elites provide semblance of state rule, peace and order, tax collection and votes  Central government provide state largesse or patronage funds for the upkeep of political elites  The elites should always be at the right side of the fence  Elites also susceptible to changing tides at the center
  10. 10. Gangsters and Criminals They comprise the 3rd G – goons Banditry is a form of resistance to the state, from the tulisanes to the gangsters Types  Victims of oppression, police brutality  Guns for hire  Employed by the state to counter insurgents
  11. 11. Mindanao and separatism Types of separatism 1968 Jabidah Massacre - demise of the elites/royal families as leaders of the Bangsamoro MNLF – Tausugs, radical secular intellectuals, secular state like Malaysia or Indonesia 1976 Tripoli Agreement – betrayal of Muslim cause MILF – Maranao, religious intellectuals (ustadz or imam), Islamic republic like Saudi Arabia, Iran or Egypt Reflects also the divide in the Muslim world Way forward? Islam is but one identity but various causes
  12. 12. Elpidio Quirino, 1948 - 1953 Accidental president Bitterly maligned and aloof – more of a technocrat than politician Increased agricultural production thru irrigation Magna Carta of Labor, Minimum Wage Father of Foreign Service
  13. 13. Ramon Magsaysay, 1954 - 1957 Obscure background and beginnings Original “Amboy” as well as “Cold Warrior” “Man of the Masses” – open Malacanang, barong as formal wear Filipinization (read: anti-Chinese) – in industries, government biddings and contracts etc. Resettlement in Mindanao - EDCOR Quotable quotes Death in Cebu
  14. 14. Carlos Garcia, 1957 - 1961 “Filipino First” policy  Filoil  Foreign exchange controls  Close government scrutiny on alien workers  “Look East” policy  Track II diplomacy – cultural diplomacy – Bayanihan Dance Troupe
  15. 15. Diosdado Macapagal, 1961 - 1965 Strange bedfellow of Quirino “Poor boy from Lubao” Philippine Veterans Bank, NACIDA “Miracle Rice” – IRRI Independence Day from July 4 to June 12 Saya became official dress (FL Eva Macapagal) MAPHILINDO