Presentation chap 11


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Presentation chap 11

  1. 1. Disorders Related to the Endocrine System<br />Jeff Buttram<br />Bio 120 - Medical Terminology<br />
  2. 2. This presentation will focus on the following two disorders:<br /> hypercalcemia<br /> glycosuria<br />
  3. 3. hypercalcemia<br />excessive amounts of calcium in the blood.<br />
  4. 4. Normal levels of calcium in the body (blood) assist with:<br />bone maintenance.<br />muscle contraction.<br />hormone release.<br />brain and nerve function.<br /> * too much or too little calcium can interfere with the above functions.<br />
  5. 5. Endocrine system glands that regulate healthy calcium levels:<br />parathyroid - produces more parathyroid hormone (PTH) when calcium levels fall or less when levels are too high.<br />thyroid - produces calcitonin which slows the release of calcium from the body.<br />
  6. 6. * Image of parathyroid and thyroid gland placement in the cervical (neck) area. <br />
  7. 7. Causes of hypercalcemia<br />overactive parathyroid (main cause).<br />cancer.<br />certain medications.<br />certain diseases.<br />excessive use of calcium or vitamin D supplements.<br />
  8. 8. Overactive parathyroid will increase parathyroid hormone ( PTH) release, therefore: <br />the bones will release excess calcium into blood.<br />the digestive system will absorb excess calcium.<br />the kidneys will excrete less calcium and activate vitamin D (calcitriol). Vitamin D is crucial to proper calcium absorption.<br />
  9. 9. * diagram of normal PTH interaction with the body systems.<br />
  10. 10. Types of cancer associated with hypercalcemia:<br />lung.<br />breast.<br />multiple myeloma (cancer of plasma cells in bone marrow).<br />tumors can cause paraneoplastic sydrome, where a protein that acts like PTH is released, initiating calcium release.<br />
  11. 11. Medications associated with hypercalcemia<br />Lithium - used to treat bipolar disorder. Increases release of PTH.<br />Thiazide diuretics - used to treat hypertension and edema - decreases amount of calcium urinated.<br />
  12. 12. Diseases associated with hypercalcemia:<br />tuberculososis (TB) - infectious inflammatory disease most commonly affecting the respiratory system.<br />sarcoidosis - inflammatory autoimmune disease of the lymph system.<br />* both of the above are considered granulomatous disease because they are related to granuloma, or areas of inflamed tissue, that cause excess release of vitamin D (calcitriol).<br />familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia - a rare genetic defect results in  faulty calcium receptors.<br />
  13. 13. Hypercalcemia complications<br />osteoporosis - bones release too much calcium.<br />kidney stones - crystals form from excess calcium.<br />kidney failure - excess calcium affects kidneys ability to cleanse blood.<br />nervous system - confusion, dementia, confusion.<br />heart arrythmias - too much calcium can affect normal electrical impulses in the heart.<br />
  14. 14. Hypercalcemia symptoms<br />nausea/vomiting.<br />loss of appetite.<br />excess thirst.<br />frequent urination.<br />constipation.<br />abdominal pain.<br />muscle weakness.<br />muscle/joint aches.<br />confusion.<br />fatigue.<br />
  15. 15. Diagnostic tests for hypercalcemia:<br />Blood tests - look for high calcium levels in blood or for excess PTH levels.<br />Mammogram.<br />Chest x-ray.<br />MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).<br />CT (computerized tomography) scan.<br /> * above 4 tests test for lung or breast cancer, or granulomatous diseases.<br />
  16. 16. glycosuria<br />presence of excess sugar in the urine<br />
  17. 17. Two main categories of causes for glycosuria<br />hyperglycemia - blood glucose levels are so high that the renal tubules cannot absorb all of the gluscose (can't keep up).<br />renal glycosuria - renal tubules cannot absorb glucose even when blood glucose levels are at normal to low levels (due to a defect in nephron ).<br />
  18. 18. * Detail of renal tubules <br />
  19. 19. Conditions associated with glycosuria<br />diabetes mellitus (most common) -insulin shortage  results in inefficient breakdown of glucose. <br />hyperthyroidism - leads to poor absorption of glucose from body's waste fluids.<br />liver problems - conditions such as cirrhosis impair liver's ability to process carbohydrates.<br />kidney disease - infections or disease impair glucose filtration.<br />pregnancy - sugar "leaks" from kidney to urine common in pregnancy.<br />
  20. 20. * Diagram detailing physiology of diabetes mellitus (type II)<br />
  21. 21. Glycosuria diagnostics<br />a urine sample is collected.<br />a color sensitive "dipstick" changes color and is used to determine amount of glucose in urine.<br />