Chap5 pres jeb

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Chap5 pres jeb

  1. 1. Cardiovascular System Diagnostic Procedures<br />Jeff Buttram<br />Bio 120 Medical Terminology<br />
  2. 2. There are many diagnostic procedures to help discover and diagnose various cardiovascular pathologies, falling into three main categories.<br />
  3. 3. Clinical Laboratory Tests<br />Diagnostic Imaging<br />Cardiac Function Tests<br />
  4. 4. This presentation will focus on these three tests, one from each category.<br />1. Serum lipoprotein levels (Clinical Lab). <br />2. Echocardiography (Diagnostic Imaging). <br />3. Holter monitor (Cardiac Function). <br />
  5. 5. SERUM LIPOPROTEIN LEVEL<br />
  6. 6.  Clinical laboratory test.<br /> Blood drawn from patient.<br /> Usually after fasting period.<br /> Cholesterol and triglyceride levels.<br /> Determines risk for atherosclerosis.<br /> Measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/DL).<br />
  7. 7. artherosclerosis<br />fatty substances form plaque deposits on arterial walls.<br />
  8. 8. Serum lipoprotein level test measures:<br /> HDL cholesterol<br /> LDL cholesterol<br /> Triglycerides<br />
  9. 9. HDL<br /> high-density lipoprotein.<br /> "good" cholesterol.<br />
  10. 10. HDL Levels<br />< 60 mg/DL = low risk for heart disease.<br /> > 40 mg/DL in men = risk for heart disease.<br /> > 50 mg/DL in women = risk for heart disease.<br />
  11. 11. LDL  <br />Low-density lipoprotein.<br />"Bad" cholesterol - responsible for plaque build-up.<br />
  12. 12. LDL Levels<br />< 100 mg/DL = Optimal.<br />100-129 mg/DL= Near optimal.<br />130 - 159 mg/DL = Borderline high.<br />160 - 189 mg/DL = High.<br />> 190 mg/DL = Very High.<br />
  13. 13. Triglycerides<br />Chemical form of fat in foods and body.<br />High-levels considered a predictor of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).<br />
  14. 14. Triglyceride Levels<br />< 150 mg/DL= Normal.<br />150 - 159 mg/DL= Borderline High.<br />200 - 499 mg/DL = High.<br />> 500 mg/DL = Very High.<br />
  15. 15. Total cholesterol<br /> Measure of HDL, LDL, and other lipid components.<br />
  16. 16. Total Cholesterol Levels<br /> < 200 mg/DL= Desirable.<br /> 200 - 239 mg/DL= Borderline High.<br /> > 240 mg/DL = High.<br />
  17. 17. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY<br />
  18. 18. Diagnostic Imaging technique.<br />Uses ultrasound sound waves.<br />Non-invasive.<br />More detailed than X-ray.<br />No exposure to radiation.<br />Visualizes internal cardiac structures.<br />Evaluates cardiac valve activity.<br />
  19. 19. * View of standard echocardiogram image.<br />
  20. 20. Provides information about:<br />Size and shape of the heart.<br />How well the heart chambers are working.<br />Abnormal muscle contractions in myocardium due to poor blood flow .<br />Blood flow through chambers and valves of the heart (Doppler ultrasound).<br />
  21. 21. Used to identify:<br />Blood clots in the heart.<br />Issues with pericardium (sac around the heart).<br />Issues with aorta.<br />
  22. 22. Used to evaluate:<br /> heart murmurs.<br /> heart's pumping function.<br /> patients with heart attack history.<br />
  23. 23. Abnormal results can mean:<br /> heart valve disease.<br />cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle).<br />pericardial effusion (excess fluid around the heart).<br />
  24. 24. HOLTER MONITOR TEST<br />
  25. 25. Cardiac function test.<br />portable ECG (EKG) monitor.<br />Measures electrical activity of the heart.<br />Worn from a few hours to a few days.<br />Used to identify arrhythmias (disturbance in rhythm of heartbeat) that are difficult to identify in shorter periods of time .<br />
  26. 26. Three to eight electrodes attached to chest.<br />Connected to a small piece of equipment worn on belt or around patient's neck.<br />Software used to analyze the record of activity.<br />
  27. 27. * Patient wearing Holter monitor apparatus<br />
  28. 28. * Example of Holter monitor software analysis<br />
  29. 29. Software Analysis:<br />Heartbeat morphology.<br />Beat interval measurement.<br />Variations in heart rate.<br />Overview of heart rhythms.<br />

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