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- 1. TRIANGULAR WAVE GENERATOR USING OP AMP 741 Operational Amplifier based triangular wave form generator is simple circuit that is widely used in function generators. Circuit for Triangular wave generator using 741 op amp is drawn. The integrator output waveform will be triangular if the input to it is a square wave. Triangular wave generator can be formed by simply cascading an integrator and a square wave generator. First op amp functions as a comparator and next op amp as an integrator. Sawtooth waveform can be easily generated by doing little modifications in the triangular wave generator circuit. Here the ‘non inverting’ terminal of second op amp is grounded, to get sawtooth generator we just need to add a potentio meter . It also Includes Working Principle of Triangular wave generator. Determine the amplitude and frequency of triangular waveform. 1. Peak to peak amplitude of triangular wave. 2. Basic Integrator Output. 3. Frequency of Oscillation. Waveform is drawn. A triangular waveform generator can also be constructed by a simple alternate arrangement of a square-wave generator. SAWTOOTH WAVE GENERATOR. * Sawtooth wave refers to a wave form with its rise time being many times longer than corresponding fall time or fall time very longer as compared to the rise time. * Sawtooth waveform can be also generated by an asymmetrical astable
- 2. multivibrator followed by an integrator. * The sawtooth wave generators have wide application in time-base generators and pulse width modulation circuits. * The difference between the triangular wave and sawtooth waveform is that the rise time of triangular wave is always equal to its fall of time while in generator, rise time may be much higher than its fall of time . It also Includes 1.Circuit Diagram 2.Sawtooh wave and comparator ouputs. 3.Sawtooth wave design. FREQUENCY OF OSCILLAION: The frequency is reciprocal of time. T .B;R7(335-336) Derived sheets Physics-Hyperphysics. Design sawtooth wave generator using IC 741. Derive the expression for amplitude and frequency Images & waveform to Illustrate the function. TIMER IC 555 The 555 integrated circuit timer was first introduced by signetics Corporation as Type SE555/NE555.
- 3. It is available in 8-pin circular syleTO-99 Can, 8-pin mini –DIP and 14-pin DIP. The 555 IC is widely popular and various manufactures provide the IC. The 555 timer can be operated with dc supply voltage ranging from +5V to +18V. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF IC 555: Functional block Diagram of IC 555 timer is drawn. Two comparators namely, upper comparator, lower comparator. A control voltage input terminal accepts a modulation control input voltage applied. Threshold terminal. Trigger terminal. Reset terminal. MONOSTABLE OPERATION OF TIMER 555. Functional Block Diagram Connection diagram of monostable mulivibrator using 555 timer. Timing Pulses. Voltage expression across the capacitor. Application of Monostable Multivibator. Ramp generator. Frequency division. Pulse-Width Modulation. ASTABLE OPRATION OF TIMER IC 555: Functional Block Diagram Connection diagram of Astable mulivibrator using 555 timer. Timing Pulses. Voltage expression across the capacitor APPLICATION OF ASTABLE MULTIVIBAOR:
- 4. FSK generator. Pulse-Position modulator. Schmitt Trigger using IC 555 VOLTAGE REGULATORS: A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level . Voltage regulator- any electrical or electronic device that maintains the voltage of a power source within acceptable limits. The voltage regulator is needed to keep voltages within the prescribed range that can be tolerated by the electrical equipment using that voltage. Voltage Regulators classified into (i) Linear voltage regulators (ii) switching regulators. Linear Regulators classified into (i) Series regulator (ii) Shunt regulators. BLOCK DIAGRAM: Series voltage regulators Shunt regulators. BASICS OF VOLTAGE REGULATOR: Linear Mode Power Supply. Factors determining the stability. Line Regulation. Load Regulation. Ripple Regulation. LINEAR VOLTAGE REGULATORS USING OP-AMP: Single Polarity Linear Voltage Regulator Using Op-amp. Dual Tracking Voltage regulator using op-amps. IC VOLTAGE EGULATORS: Fixed Voltage Regulators
- 5. Adjustable output voltage Regulators. LM 117/LM317 THREE TERMINAL ADJUSTABLE VOLTAGE REGULATOR: The fixed voltage regulators are designed and preset for a particular voltage of positive /negative polarities. There are applications which require. 1. Regulated voltage sources which are variable. 2. Some supply voltage are not available from standard fixed voltage regulators. LM117/337 ADJUSTABLE POSITIVE VOLTAGE REGULATORS: These series are adjustable three terminal positive evoltage regulators capable of supplying output current of 0.1 A to 1.5 a. Important Specifications of LM117/337 is given.
- 6. Application- Motor vehicles

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