HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008 Interface Model Elicitation from  Textual Scenar...
Introduction and motivations <ul><li>Model  Elicitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T...
The underlying ontology <ul><li>Reduced view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task : piece of work (same resource, location, time per...
The underlying ontology <ul><li>Expanded view </li></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congre...
Related  work <ul><li>Some other tools use model elicitation at some level  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U-Tel, ConcurTaskTress, ...
Methodology and tool support <ul><li>We developped an elicitation methodology based on three levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Tool support <ul><li>Model Elicitation Tool </li></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress...
Level 1: manual classification <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program user does the elicitation job </li></ul>...
Level 1: manual classification <ul><li>Tool : elicitation of a task </li></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, du...
Level 1: manual classification <ul><li>Advantages :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easi...
Level 2: dictionary-based classification <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlies on a set of predefined terms...
Level 2: dictionary-based classification <ul><li>Tool : elicitation of jobs using a dictionary </li></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan...
Level 2: dictionary-based classification <ul><li>Advantages :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing speed </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Level 3: toward semantic understanding <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to approximate natural language unde...
Level 3: toward semantic understanding <ul><li>Concrete example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An accountant receives taxes compl...
Level 3: toward semantic understanding <ul><li>Advantages :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressivity, being able to deduce rela...
After model elicitation <ul><li>Once elicitation job is done, some treatments can be performed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use o...
Conclusion and future work <ul><li>Methodology and tool support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of three complementary m...
Thank you very much for your attention HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008 For more ...
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Interface Model Elicitation from Textual Scenarios

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During the stage of system requirements gathering, model elicitation is aimed at identifying in textual scenarios model elements that are relevant for building a first version of models that will be further exploited in a model-driven engineering method. When multiple elements should be identified from multiple interrelated conceptual models, the complexity increases. Three method levels are successively examined to conduct model elicitation from textual scenarios for the purpose of conducting model-driven engineering of user interfaces: manual classi-fication, dictionary-based classification, and nearly natural language understanding based on semantic tagging and chunk extraction. A model elicitation tool implementing these three levels is described and exemplified on a real-world case study for designing user interfaces to workflow information systems. The model elicitation process discussed in the case study involves several models: user, task, domain, organization, resources, and job.

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Interface Model Elicitation from Textual Scenarios

  1. 1. HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008 Interface Model Elicitation from Textual Scenarios Christophe Lemaigre, Josefina Guerrero, Jean Vanderdonckt Université catholique de Louvain (UCL) Louvain School of Management (LSM) Information Systems Unit (ISYS) Place des Doyens, 1 – B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) http://www.isys.ucl.ac.be/
  2. 2. Introduction and motivations <ul><li>Model Elicitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The identification of model elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Textual scenario </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First step of a model-driven engineering process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of several models : user, task, domain, organization, resource and job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterizing the concepts used in the development life cycle of user interfaces for Worfklow Information Systems </li></ul></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  3. 3. The underlying ontology <ul><li>Reduced view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task : piece of work (same resource, location, time period) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational unit : physical location, equipped with resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User stereotype : human being </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008 Organizational Unit Job Task 1..* 1..* 1..* 1..* Task Resource User Stereotype Material Immaterial Process Workflow 1..* 1..* * 0..1 0..1 * 0..1 * 1..* 1..* 1..* 1..* isOrganizedInto ► isOrderedIn ► 1..* 1..* Object Method Manipulates ► Invokes ► * * * *
  4. 4. The underlying ontology <ul><li>Expanded view </li></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  5. 5. Related work <ul><li>Some other tools use model elicitation at some level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U-Tel, ConcurTaskTress, T2T, Garland et al. Brasser & vanderLinden </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shortcomings : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on a single model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No attribute elicitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result that can hardly be exploited </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  6. 6. Methodology and tool support <ul><li>We developped an elicitation methodology based on three levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionary-based classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And implemented the first and second one in a tool, made of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A text edition part, with syntactic coloration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees in which model elements are dispatched </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  7. 7. Tool support <ul><li>Model Elicitation Tool </li></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  8. 8. Level 1: manual classification <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program user does the elicitation job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without the help of an automated process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Method : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of a piece of text from the scenario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose the appropriate model and object type </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  9. 9. Level 1: manual classification <ul><li>Tool : elicitation of a task </li></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008 1 2 3
  10. 10. Level 1: manual classification <ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to implement than automated elicitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need of classification datas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inconvenients : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastidious for the user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time costly </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  11. 11. Level 2: dictionary-based classification <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlies on a set of predefined terms that will be automatically extracted and identified as model objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two kinds of dictionaries : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generic dictionary, which is domain-independant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific dictionary, linked with a definite domain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Method : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved pattern-matching process : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the recognition of phrases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That are associated with their model definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plural forms and conjugation are taken into account (e.g. to provide // providing) </li></ul></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  12. 12. Level 2: dictionary-based classification <ul><li>Tool : elicitation of jobs using a dictionary </li></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  13. 13. Level 2: dictionary-based classification <ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No human intervention needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inconvenients : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of precision, some elements being poorely classified due to the fact it is context-independant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No relations between elements (e.g. hierarchy) </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  14. 14. Level 3: toward semantic understanding <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to approximate natural language understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Method : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using syntactic tagging, semantic tagging and chunk parsing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detection of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts such as task types or attribute types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships between model elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No tool support currently </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  15. 15. Level 3: toward semantic understanding <ul><li>Concrete example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An accountant receives taxes complaints, but he is also in charge of receipts perception” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model elements : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task : receive taxes complaints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task : charge of receipts perception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job : accountant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relation “performed by” between those tasks an the job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal operator : concurrency for the tasks, used by default </li></ul></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  16. 16. Level 3: toward semantic understanding <ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressivity, being able to deduce relationships between model elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic treatement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inconvenients : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to implement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural language understanding is a field of informatics research that needs a lot of work and improvement </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  17. 17. After model elicitation <ul><li>Once elicitation job is done, some treatments can be performed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of syntactical coloration allowing the user to check its work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification of the compliance with some desirable quality properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UsiXML export, allowing to use tools like IdealXML or FlowiXML to edit models and derivate user interfaces </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  18. 18. Conclusion and future work <ul><li>Methodology and tool support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of three complementary methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing elicitation of elements from several models and relations between those elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oriented towards user-interfaces generation for workflow information systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented in a tool, using Usi-XML standard to export its result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future works : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced visualisation (e.g carrousel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take into account inter-model relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refine the third level towards a more natural language understanding </li></ul></ul>HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008
  19. 19. Thank you very much for your attention HCIS’2008 – Milan, September 8-9th, 2008, during IFIP World Congress 2008 For more information and downloading, http://www.isys.ucl.ac.be/bchi http://www.usixml.org User Interface eXtensible Markup Language http://www.similar.cc European network on Multimodal UIs Special thanks to all members of the team!

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