Buspro infosheet6


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Buspro infosheet6

  1. 1. Process Analysis “If you cannot describe what you are doing as a process, you do not know what you are doing.” W.E. Deming
  2. 2. What is a process? A process is a series of independent tasks that transforms an input into output material of higher value for the organization Examples: 1. Honda transforms steel, rubber, and plastic into cars 2. McDonald’s transforms meat, potatoes, and sauces into packaged food 3. Dell transforms customer orders into PC’s
  3. 3. Process Analysis Why do we need to analyze the process? - To identify inefficient tasks - To spot possible effectiveness improvement tasks - To understand where value can be added How can we analyze a process? Map it! What are the relevant performance measures?
  4. 4. Process Analysis: the performance measures Assume a process is in place. What do we need to measure in order to understand how efficient it is? Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 • What is its capacity? How many units per unit time go through each task? The process as a whole? • What is the bottleneck? Which production step limits the process capacity? • What is the throughput time? How long does it take to get through the system?
  5. 5. How do we measure capacity? Capacity of a task is the physical limitation in terms of “how much can be processed at this task” Cycle Time: Average time for completion of a unit at a production step or process. Does not include waiting. Measured as time/unit Throughput Rate: Average number of units processed over a time interval. Measured as units/time Key relationship Throughput rate = 1 Cycle Time Capacity = throughput rate
  6. 6. Computing Cycle Times Processing a fixed amount of work Example: Producing 100 cars. On average, production takes 5 hours per car. It takes 50 hours to set up the production line. Cycle Time = Set-up Time + (Batch size) x (Time per unit) Batch size
  7. 7. Computing Cycle Times Setup time: 15 min Production Time: 25min/unit A B Question: What is the cycle time between points A and B of the process, if we work in batches of 10?
  8. 8. What is a bottleneck? Bottleneck is the process stage with the smallest throughput rate (longest cycle time) Which task is the bottleneck? 3 units/hr 5 units/hr 2 units/hr
  9. 9. Capacity of a process The capacity of the process is: minimum throughput rate at any of the stages What is the capacity of this process? 3 units/hr 5 units/hr 2 units/hr
  10. 10. How do we measure throughput time? Throughput Time: Average time that a unit takes to go through the entire process (including waiting time). Measured as time Work in Process(WIP): Average number of units in system over a time interval. Measured as units Key relationship WIP Throughput time Throughput rate = (Little’s Law)
  11. 11. 3 Stages to Flow Improvement 1 - See the current state 2 - Analysis 3 - Take action to apply flow improvement principles
  12. 12. Stage 1- Current State Flow Analysis Tool: 4 elements • • • • Process steps Communication steps Responsible clinically Responsible for each part of the process
  13. 13. Stage 2 Analysis Understanding your Map Add value Remove waste
  14. 14. Activity: Review the completed current state map and identify the value and non-value added steps Compare the value and non-value steps identified on the completed current state map
  15. 15. Opportunities to Remove Waste • • • • • • • Waiting Mistakes Uncoordinated activity Stock Transportation Motion Inappropriate processing
  16. 16. Activity: On the flow analysis map identify waste and plot the different sorts of waste
  17. 17. Analysis Summary Steps Total number Steps Number of value steps Value steps as % total steps Time Total time Hrs:Mins Time of value steps Value Time as % total time Waste • Waiting • Mistakes • Uncoordinated activity • Stock • Transportation • Motion • Inappropriate processing
  18. 18. Waiting Waiting is the most important of all the wastes because: ▲The process STOPS ▲Inhibits FLOW ▲Does not add value for the PATIENT
  19. 19. Stage 3: Take action to apply flow improvement principles
  20. 20. Next - helping the value adding steps flow 4 characteristics of smooth flow 1 Small batch sizes 2 Linked processes 3 Setting the pace 4 Overall co-ordination