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Lec 11 Habitat


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Lec 11 Habitat

  1. 1. Animal Behavior: Habitat Choice
  2. 2. Animal Behavior: Habitat Choice <ul><li>Relates to Alcock Ch. 8 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Announcements <ul><li>Schedule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This lecture will include lecture and lab time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures will be on Alcock Ch. 8 and beginning of Alcock Ch. 10 &11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-class discussion of homework on Ch. 5, Ch 6& 9 and Ch. 7 &8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Trip Vote (Nov 22, Dec 6) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Announcements <ul><li>You will receive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse ethogram labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(use comments on zoo behavior study paper) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Datasheets from 2 nd lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(use structure as a reference for zoo study) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Posted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Slideshare software) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information for writing paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated syllabus </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Due dates/Deadlines <ul><li>Due dates/deadlines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-submission of pre-midterm homeworks is due November 20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-submission deadline for HW 6,7,8 (Ch. 5, Ch. 6&9, Ch. 7&8) is November 20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posted on Nov 14 th is the information for structuring ethogram and zoo proposal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will receive zoo proposal revisions and the ethograms (I forgot to hand them out) on Tuesday the Nov 18th. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoo proposal is due Nov 25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoo paper is due December 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoo oral presentations given on December 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: There is a penalty in your grade for not completing homework on time </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Review previous lecture <ul><li>Review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories to explain adaptive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Game theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral choices (strategies) in a social context) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizing a fitness proxy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. optimal foraging theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Habitat Choice and Feeding: Outline <ul><li>Habitat selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source habitats (populations); sink habitats (populations) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habitat preference </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbreeding depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration as Conditional tactic </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Habitat selection <ul><li>Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for resources </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Habitat selection and Competition <ul><li>Competition influences habitat selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily measured by resource competition </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Habitat selection and Competition <ul><li>Example: Aphids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location on leaf </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Habitat selection and Competition <ul><li>Game theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality habitat vs low quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness tradeoff between high quality habitat and density of population such that individual fitness is high in lower quality, less dense habitat </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Habitat selection and Competition <ul><li>Trade-off between quality of rocks and size of territories in male lizards </li></ul><ul><li>Swarm of bees making a new hive, Distance of equally optimal habitat, more distant location is chosen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In areas where hives are bigger (northern Europe) and competition more intense, swarms move farther to found a new hive, than areas where hives are smaller (southern Europe) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Dispersal <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of not finding a habitat </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Dispersal benefits <ul><li>Reduced inbreeding depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbreeding depression = increase risk when closely related individuals mate of getting both recessive alleles of damaging traits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce competition (e.g., territorial disputes) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Dispersal cost/benefit tradeoffs <ul><li>Is there a cost benefit tradeoff to dispersal? </li></ul><ul><li>Why/why not? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Dispersal cost/benefit tradeoffs <ul><li>Energetics cost of flight (dispersal) vs. energy to reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two phenotypes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large wings (flight) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small wings (no flight) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibit formation of wings on large phenotype (juvenile hormone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large wings (flight) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(less energy to reproduction) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large wings (no flight) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(greater energy to reproduction) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore flight apparatus comes at a cost to reproductive output </li></ul>
  17. 17. Migration <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>benefits </li></ul>
  18. 18. White sharks – discoveries of migration and new mysteries of life history <ul><ul><li>Kevin C. Weng - University of Hawaii at Manoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 September 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Massachusetts Dartmouth </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Movement Ecology <ul><li>Territorial </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic </li></ul><ul><li>Migratory </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mammal Migration known in 1960 <ul><li>Grey whale </li></ul><ul><li>Eschrichtius gibbosus </li></ul>Gilmore 1960
  21. 21. Serventy 1967, Baker 1978 Bird: Migration Known in 1967 Short-Tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris
  22. 22. Distribution c. 1999 <ul><li>Patrol coast </li></ul><ul><li>Short acoustic tracks </li></ul><ul><li>(Carey, McCosker, Strong) </li></ul>Compagno 1984
  23. 23. Historical Records Precede Captain Cook Taylor 1985
  24. 24. HURL Sightings October 4, 2004, Makapuu: Terry Kerby & Amy Baco-Taylor
  25. 25. Jimmy Hall 28 Dec 2005, Haleiwa
  26. 26. Population Status <ul><li>No population estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Seal colonies off California ~100s </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregation in S. Africa ~1000s </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregations in Australia ~100s </li></ul>Pyle, pers. com.; Cliff et al. 1996; Strong et al. 1996
  27. 27. Genetic Population Structure Reeb, unpublished: separate stock in E Pacific Pardini et al. Nature 2001: Separate stocks in South Africa and Australia ? ? ?
  28. 28. Mating ?
  29. 29. Reproductive Biology Pregnant White Sharks Mediterranean Japan Taiwan Australia New Zealand ? ? ?
  30. 30. Young-of-Year White sharks: Possible Parturition/Nursery Mediterranean Japan Australia New Zealand California Baja NE Atlantic South Africa
  31. 31. Long distance movement to Baja
  32. 32. Trophic Links <ul><li>Stomach contents (Klimley 1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Ontogenetic diet shift: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 340 cm: fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 340 cm: fish + mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Estrada et al. 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Seal behavior and distribution: predator avoidance (Le Bouef & Crocker 1985)
  34. 35. Pelagic Fishes can be Tracked with Recently Developed Tools <ul><li>SPOT fin-mounted transmitter - Argos position </li></ul>Adult white shark PAT Tag - Temperature, Pressure, Light Juvenile white shark Salmon shark
  35. 36. Adult White Sharks: Farallon Islands, California
  36. 37. Monterey Bay Aquarium
  37. 38. White Shark Data <ul><li>20 white sharks tracked </li></ul><ul><li>435 (401-457) cm total length (median Q1 Q3)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>3,336 total days of tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Track length 182 (85-217) days </li></ul><ul><li>Longest track 367 days </li></ul>
  38. 39. 03-583 Male 4.5 m 04-155 Male 4.3 m Scot Anderson & Adam Brown
  39. 40. Pelagic White Sharks Boustany et al., 2002 Nature (n = 6)‏
  40. 41. White Shark to Hawaii 04-160 4 m Female Photo: Scot Anderson & Adam Brown Tag found by beach-comber at Sea Ranch, CA
  41. 42. White shark movement to Hawaii Weng et al. 2007 Marine Biology
  42. 43. Seasonal Distribution: White Sharks (n = 15)‏ Weng et al. 2007
  43. 44. White Shark Range Expansion Boustany et al. 2002 Weng et al. 2007 Compagno 1984 Species range (fishery data)‏ Individual movements
  44. 45. A Week in Life of a White Shark in Hawaii <ul><li>Diel pattern of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Onshore day, offshore night? </li></ul><ul><li>Dolphins, large pelagics, whale placentas? </li></ul><ul><li>Monk seals? </li></ul>
  45. 46. Why Migrate to Hawaii ? <ul><li>Escape winter </li></ul><ul><li>Find food </li></ul><ul><li>Mate or give birth </li></ul>
  46. 47. Why Migrate to Hawaii ? <ul><li>Escape winter </li></ul><ul><li>Find food </li></ul><ul><li>Mate or give birth </li></ul>No winter in California Current X
  47. 48. Why Migrate to Hawaii ? <ul><li>Escape winter </li></ul><ul><li>Find food </li></ul><ul><li>Mate or give birth </li></ul><ul><li>Pelagic fishes </li></ul><ul><li>Sharks & rays </li></ul><ul><li>Turtles </li></ul><ul><li>Dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Whales </li></ul><ul><li>Whale placentas </li></ul>
  48. 49. Reverse Diel Behavior <ul><li>Deepest dives at night </li></ul><ul><li>Nearshore during day </li></ul><ul><li>Offshore during night </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Why Migrate to Hawaii ? <ul><li>Escape winter </li></ul><ul><li>Find food </li></ul><ul><li>Mate or give birth </li></ul>? Both males and females No records of neonates
  50. 51. Return Migration of White Shark 04-156 3.6 m Unknown sex Photo: Scot Anderson & Adam Brown
  51. 52. Radio Direction Finder <ul><li>Recover archival tags </li></ul><ul><li>Reacquire animal at sea and sample environment or collect additional data </li></ul>Doppler antenna Controller Receiver (401.65 MHz)‏ Processor Smart friends (Hans Thomas, MBARI)‏
  52. 53. Full cycle of migration Days of the Year
  53. 54. White Shark Behavior Changes Dramatically in Different Habitats Offshore Traveling Nearshore
  54. 55. Vertical Habitat Through Migration
  55. 56. Why Migrate to Subtropical Gyre ? <ul><li>Escape winter </li></ul><ul><li>Find food </li></ul><ul><li>Mate or give birth </li></ul>
  56. 57. Why Migrate to Subtropical Gyre ? <ul><li>Escape winter </li></ul><ul><li>Find food </li></ul><ul><li>Mate or give birth </li></ul>Pelagic fishes Sharks & rays Low abundance
  57. 58. Primary Productivity
  58. 59. Potential Prey for White Sharks Offshore? Catch of Bigeye Tuna 2000-2004 IATTC, 2006
  59. 60. White Sharks Foraging Offshore? Catch of Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna 2000-2004 IATTC, 2006
  60. 61. Parturition? Juvenile white sharks: Southern California & Baja Weng et al., in press, MEPS
  61. 62. Mexico Pacific: Why Migrate to Subtropical Gyre ? <ul><li>Escape winter </li></ul><ul><li>Find food </li></ul><ul><li>Mate or give birth </li></ul>Both males and females Neonates in S. CA Bight
  62. 63. Mexico Sharks (Guadalupe Isl.) Domeier and Nasby-Lucas, in press, MEPS
  63. 64. Parturition? Young born Adult Nearshore nursery Adult Nearshore nursery Young born Kevin Weng, Stanford University
  64. 65. Migration: Indian Ocean
  65. 66. Aggregation Region Bonfil et al 2005 Science
  66. 67. Neritic Migrations Bonfil et al 2005 Science
  67. 68. Africa to Australia O + 3. 8 m shark: not mating Bonfil et al 2005 Science
  68. 69. Migration: Australia/NZ
  69. 70. Hotspots + highways 3.0 – 4.0 m white sharks Bruce et al. 2006, unpublished
  70. 71. Long Distance Movements Linking Australia + New Zealand Bruce et al. unpublished
  71. 72. Summary – White Shark Feed Feed? Mate? Transit
  72. 73. Summary: White Sharks <ul><li>Not neritic – huge pelagic habitat for ½ the year </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable seasonal migration </li></ul><ul><li>Regular use of mid-ocean and isolated islands </li></ul><ul><li>Australia? Neritic… </li></ul>