Chapter 2 production


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Chapter 2 production

  1. 1. Media Production for Writers<br />Writing for Electronic Media: notes from Chapter 2<br />
  2. 2. Script Conversion<br />As a media writer you must convert your writing to the form of media or delivery system that you are using to reach your audience. <br />
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  4. 4. Media is the manipulation of audio, video and digital signals in order to create images and sound that develop the representation of events in the telling of a story or the clarification of information.<br />
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  6. 6. Relationships and Attitude <br />
  7. 7. The Misunderstood Writer<br />
  8. 8. The professional operation and eventual quality of a project may rely on the relationship that develops between you and the staff and crew of the production team.<br />
  9. 9. Disinterested<br />
  10. 10. Curious<br />
  11. 11. Involved<br />
  12. 12. Production <br />Production consists of the operation of the physical and digital equipment combined to convert your written script to a completed program available to be distributed.<br />
  13. 13. Preproduction<br />As a writer, you prepare most of the preproduction work: the concept, proposal, the treatment, preliminary budget and various stages of drafting.<br />
  14. 14. Production <br />The production team takes the written script and organizes the equipment and personnel:<br />Plan, carryout the design, setup, rehearse and record.<br />
  15. 15. Postproduction <br />An editing staff in conjunction with the director and perhaps the produce work on finalizing the product. The writer might be asked to share an opinion.<br />
  16. 16. The Language of Production<br />Descriptions of action (equipment and personnel)<br />Abbreviations and descriptions of transitions<br />Abbreviations of object framing<br />Abbreviations specific to audio<br />
  17. 17. Action Descriptions<br />
  18. 18. Tilt<br />a camera movement that gives the viewer the feeling that the scene is moving past in a vertical motion, either up or down, top to bottom, or bottom to top<br />
  19. 19. Dolly<br />a camera movement that gives the viewers the feeling that they are moving closer or farther away from the subject<br />
  20. 20. Truck <br />a camera movement that gives the viewers the feeling they are moving past the subject on a path parallel to the subject, either from right to left or from left to right<br />
  21. 21. Crab or arc<br />a camera movement that combines the view of a dolly and a truck. The viewer appears to move in an circle around the subject or else moves closer or away at an angle<br />
  22. 22. Pedestal<br />A camera movement that gives the viewers the feeling they are being raised or lowered in relationship to the subject. This movement usually is combined with a tilt to keep the subject properly framed.<br />
  23. 23. Crane or boom-<br />a camera movement that combines one or more of a pedestal, crab, dolly, and truck. It provides the viewer with an infinite number of continuous angles. Used most often for either extreme high- or low-angle shots. <br />
  24. 24. Zoom<br />an optical movement created within the lens that duplicates a dolly, giving the viewer the feeling that the subject is moving closer or farther away without changing perspective.<br />
  25. 25. Pan<br />a camera movement that gives the viewer the impression that the scene is moving past in a horizontal movement, back and forth, left to right or right to left.<br />
  26. 26. Abbreviations of Transitions<br />Fade-in the shot starts in black and image grad. appears<br />Fade-out shot starts with visible object that fades into black<br />Take (Cut) Instantaneous change of picture or sound<br />Dissolve (DISS) A slow change of picture, one dissapearing as another appears<br />Wipe change of picture with either a solid or soft edge between pictures<br />Special effects <br />Superone picture bleeds through the other giving a ghost effect<br />Key – one shot bleeding thorught the other, the foreground is electronically inserted into the background shot.<br />Split screen a wipe that remains in a fixed position<br />Matte key a shot requiring three sources, foreground, background and a thrid to determine the shape of the separation between the 2 frames<br />Chroma key- a specialized key, so that the foreground camera does not see a specific color (green or blue) <br />Digital effects – an infinite number of transitions designed to replace dissolves, wipes and keys only limited by the equipment <br />
  27. 27. Abbreviations of object framing<br />XCU or ECU – extreme close-up<br />CU – close-up to show detail missed in a wide shot<br />MCU – medium close-up<br />MS – medium shot<br />L/WS – long shot/wide shot:<br />XLS/XWS – extreme long shot<br />POV – point of view of the actor<br />OS- over the shoulder of the interviewer and facing interviewee<br />Two-shot - two people<br />Three-shot – three people<br />Head - shot faming top of the head to neck area<br />Bust - shot framing from top of head to waist and chest area<br />
  28. 28. Video production: The Bible<br />The bible contains a list of characters, character relationships, scenes, locations, and treatments of the production, which gives the producer and director the means to reach an understanding of your concept. It is a method used to match your concept of the script to the work they must accomplish.<br />
  29. 29. Audio Abbreviations<br />SFX/EFX – sound effects<br />ANNCR – announcer<br />VO – voice over narrations<br />MUSIC – music integrated from the same sources as sound effects<br />
  30. 30. Audio Transitions<br />Cut- instantaneous change fromone audio to another<br />Fade-in- audio changes from no sound to sound<br />Fade-out – audio changes from sound to no sound<br />Segue- - one audio fades out to silence while a second fades out to silence while a second fades in<br />Cross fade – as one audio source begins to fade out, a second source begins to fade in<br />Bridge – an audio link between two segments, either as a segue or a cross-fade<br />
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  32. 32. General Descriptive Terms<br />Audio: the sound source of a production, either sound or visual.<br />Video: the visual source of a production<br />Dialogue: speech delivered by a performer who is usually visible on camera.<br />Narration: speech delivered by a performer who is usually not visible on camera.<br />
  33. 33. Audio Production Techniques<br />Audio carries a significant amount of information. <br />Indicates the level of gaiety or darkness in the mode, the historical time, and the location.<br />Introductory music: mode, time and location<br />
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