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My son presented this paper at the Mock UN Program here in Gurgaon. He was awarded Best Speaker for his presentation.

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  1. 1. SOMALIA<br />The Somali Civil War<br />And<br />The Humanitarian Efforts on the Ground<br />
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  3. 3. 1991<br /> The Oppressive Regime of SiadBarre ends in a coup that leaves Somalia an unstable, chaotic nation without government and rival factions fighting for power. This escalates into a bloody struggle of power involving multiple self-declared autonomous states within Somalia and between numerous local warlords. <br />
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  5. 5. Resolution 733 and 746 <br /> 1992<br /> The UN Security Council’s Resolutions 733 and 746 set up UNOSOM I, marking the first UN involvement in Somalia with the aim to provide humanitarian relief to stabilize the region. <br />
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  7. 7. UN forces enter Somalia and attempt to disarm many of the Somali warlords, all of which refuse to engage the UN, resulting in terrifying bloodshed with Somali children being thrown at UN soldiers. <br />The largest and most famous clash was between the Islamic Courts Union and a contingent of American soldiers at the Battle of Mogadishu on which the book Black Hawk Down is based. <br />
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  9. 9. 1995<br /> Violent conflicts between local insurgents and UN forces leaves over 1,000 casualties. The most prominent of which was the Battle of Mogadishu. <br />UN forces withdraw from Somalia.<br />
  10. 10. There is no God but God, and<br />Mohammed is the Messenger of God<br />
  11. 11. The Islamic Courts Union<br /> After the collapse of the Somali government in 1991, a Sharia-based judicial court system was instated which also acted as a police force and supplied healthcare and built schools throughout the country, focusing mainly on Southwestern Somalia. The Court Police Force was financed by private businessman to reduce local crime and drug-trafficking. <br />
  12. 12. What else does this child know?<br />
  13. 13. Initially the courts had widespread public support, with multiple institutions around the country such as Sheikh Ali Dheere’s(set up in 1994) and the BeledWayene(set up in 1996). Four separate courts, IfkaHalan, Circolo, Warshadda, and Hararyaale formed a Joint-Security Committee to stabilize the country. By 1999, the courts had developed an armed militia and began to impose its ownkrytocratic (judicial) form of government. Their first step was the capture of Mogadishu’s Main Market in Southwest Somalia.<br />
  14. 14. Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke<br />
  15. 15. The Transitional Federal Government<br />After the downfall of SiadBarre, Somalia fell into chaos. The Transitional Federational Government initially had little power next to the highly influential Islamic Courts Union who had been steadily advancing northwards from their base in Mogadishu with clandestine Eritrean support. This was until early 2006, when a joint Ethopian-TGF invasion overthrew the Islamic Courts Union in Mogadishu. Today, the Transitional Federal Government is the only internationally recognized Somalian Government. The Somali Prime Minister, Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, was appointed in February this year. <br />
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  18. 18. Last Decade<br /> Today, the conflict is now a multi-national crisis with the potential to engulf the entirety of the African Horn in the same bloody, wanton violence Somalia is currently experiencing. The Islamic Courts Union, the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism, and the Transitional Federal Government are currently the major instigators in the conflict, with the TGF supported by Ethiopia, and the ICU by the Ethiopian rival, Eritrea. <br />
  19. 19. PAST UN RELIEF INITIATIVES<br />Resolution 1724: Focused on the Arms Embargo on Somalia and prohibited UN-Member nations to ship arms to Somalia.<br />Resolution 1725: Lifted the Arms Embargo to support the IGAD (Inter-Governmental Authority on Development) training mission whose aim were to stabilize and promote peace in Somalia. <br />
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  21. 21. The Crisis in its Entirety<br /> Not only has the Somali civil war, which has escalated under the interest of neighboring African nations devastated the country, but some of the worst droughts and floods in the past century have only exacerbated the problem. Relief without underlying intentions and agendas is required by the UN, the only suitable source for support.<br />
  22. 22. Why We Need the UN<br />
  23. 23. CHILD SOLDIERS<br /> A 2004 report numbers over 200,000 armed children below the age of 15 in active military duty in Somalia. Many children are kidnapped from their homes, beaten, tortured, and forced to fight for militia, sometimes even against their own people and clans.<br />
  24. 24. DIEURMERCI<br /> An ex-child soldier who was given the pseudonym Dieurmerci testified against Thomas Lubanga, a Somali warlord and child trader, in International Criminal Court.<br /> In one excerpt of his testimony he describes an attack on a Catholic Mission.<br />
  25. 25. “We went to the mission and killed those there, also the priests,” he said. “We cut their mouths off and destroyed their faces.”<br /> His father later found him a local market. The pair fled with their family only to be found my Thomas Lubanga’s Militia who treated him as a deserter and beat him unconscious, scarring his entire body. He remained in a prison camp until his father was able to pay for his release.<br />Dieurmerciwas eleven years old.<br />
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  27. 27. DROUGHT<br /> The worst drought in decades is only exacerbating the humanitarian crisis. 3.2 million Somalians are in need of life-saving food assistance. The famine is only encouraging more violence and dissolving any semblance of infrastructure ever further. Without IMMEDIATE assistance, even more violence and hunger will continue to spread throughout Somalia. <br />
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  29. 29. FLOODS<br /> At the same time, other parts of Somalia are experiencing severe flooding, cutting them off from aid and destroying any trace of infrastructure. Famine is equally potent in the flooded areas and, without aid, the population will diminish even further. It is beyond critical at this point.<br />
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  31. 31. We Need Your Help<br /> Somalia has become a hell on earth. The basic needs of human life are being neglected. In Somalia, murder, rape, famine, floods, all of which have become commonplace. Children are being abducted and forced into militia and forced to kill their own clansmen at times. <br />
  32. 32. AID<br /> Somalia requires basic needs: water, food, and shelter. But aid will never reach them if the intense fighting does not lessen. The rest of the world is not doing enough to help these people who are being massacred and slaughtered all day, everyday. The UN must make Somalia its PRIME objective, sending military advisers and peacekeepers will only escalate the violence. For every militia fighter killed, four, five, maybe six child soldiers will be recruited in their place. <br />
  33. 33. PEACE<br /> An agreement must be signed, or at the very least, a ceasefire for the time being so that these people can be given assistance. These people will die. The situation which started in Somalia will spread throughout Africa and evolve into a catastrophic crisis that will dwarf what is occurring now. The rival factions fighting for control have proven they do not have Somalia’s interest at heart. <br /> These people must be helped. They need more than just a few helicopter drops and people handing out T-Shirts. They need people who understand that this is a crisis. They need a group of people with the means to help them that truly care. <br />Somalia has collapsed. We have ignored them for too long.<br />
  34. 34. He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetrate it. He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it.<br />Martin Luther King, Jr. <br />