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  1. 1. Sierra Leone Background
  2. 2. Brief Background of Sierra Leone <ul><li>Sierra Leone is a small west Africa nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Bordered by Guinea in the northeast, Liberia in the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean in the southwest. </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone covers a total area of 27,699 sq mi and the population is estimated at 6,296,803. </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Maps of the World, West Africa, & Sierra Leone
  4. 4. Background of Sierra Leone Cont. <ul><li>About two-thirds of the population engages in subsistence agriculture, accounting for slightly over 50% of the national income. </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone is rich in diamonds and other minerals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background of Sierra Leone Cont. <ul><li>Sierra Leone is home to Fourah Bay College, the oldest university in West Africa, established in 1827. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1462, the Portuguese explorer, Pedro da Cintra, visited and named the country Serra de Leão, meaning ‘Lion Mountains’. </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone was an important </li></ul><ul><li>center of the transatlantic slave </li></ul><ul><li>trade. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sierra Leone <ul><li>1700’s Sierra Leone was a British Colony to which freed slaves returned. They formed a social class which hardly integrated with the indigenous people. </li></ul><ul><li>1961: SL gains independence from Britain. Successive governments were dominated by a small political elite who exclusively profited from the lucrative trade in diamonds. Little of this national income trickled down to benefit the rest of the population. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Background of Sierra Leone Cont. <ul><li>In 1961, Freetown and the Protectorate combined and gained independence from the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Government neglect and spilling over of the Liberian conflict into its borders led to the Sierra Leone Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 50,000 people lost their lives, many had their limbs chopped off, hundreds of thousands were displaced, women and little girls were raped, both public and private were buildings destroyed and so on. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sierra Leone <ul><li>1991: Reacting to this system of exclusive patronage, a political outsider, Foday Sankoh, formed the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) , and started an armed insurrection to overthrow the government. The RUF was funded primarily by the trade of rough diamonds in exchange for weapons. Dissatisfied with the government, the RUF started a civil war against president Momoh. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Background of Sierra Leone Cont. <ul><li>The war began in 1991 and was resolved in 2002 with intervention of the United Nations and the ECOWAS troops led by Nigeria. </li></ul><ul><li>The civilian government elected in 1998 was restored to Freetown. </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone is slowly recovering from a protracted civil war and is showing signs of a successful transition. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Sierra Leone <ul><li>Over the next decade, the civil war would result in tens of thousands of deaths and the displacement of more than 2 million people (well over one-third of the population), many of whom became refugees in neighboring countries. </li></ul><ul><li>2002: The civil war officially ended when the United Nations (UN) declared that the disarmament of 45,000 troops had been completed. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Sierra Leone <ul><li>Today the problems of poverty, tribal rivalry, and official corruption that caused the war are far from over. According to the human development index, Sierra Leone is the world's second least developed country. Three-quarters of the population lives on less than $2 per day, half the population lacks access to clean water, and 25 percent of children do not survive to their 5th birthday. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Sierra Leone <ul><li>A lasting feature of the war, which left some 50,000 dead, was the atrocities committed by the rebels , whose trademark was to hack off the hands of their victims. A United Nations supported war crimes court has been set up to try those, from both sides, who bear the greatest responsibility for the brutalities. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Pictures of the Effects of the War
  14. 15. Human Rights <ul><li>Basic Rights to which ALL human beings are entitled </li></ul>
  15. 16. Machete <ul><li>Sword like tool for cutting large plants </li></ul>
  16. 17. Jerry Can <ul><li>Fuel Container </li></ul>
  17. 18. Branding <ul><li>Making an identifying mark by burning </li></ul>
  18. 19. Amputation <ul><li>Cutting off a limb or part of a limb </li></ul>
  19. 20. Child Soldier <ul><li>Military use of children for: 1. Direct part in hostilities. 2.Support Roles. 3. For political advantage. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Memoir <ul><li>An account of the author’s personal experiences. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Civil War <ul><li>War between factions in the same country. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Blood Diamond <ul><li>A diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance military actions ( on either side) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Blood Diamond <ul><li>In relation to diamond trading, blood diamond (also called a converted diamond , conflict diamond , hot diamond or a war diamond ) refers to a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency , invading army's war efforts, or a warlord 's activity, usually in Africa . [ </li></ul>
  24. 25. Background of Sierra Leone Cont. <ul><li>Freetown is the capital, seat of government, and largest city. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Pictures of NUC after the Rebel Attack
  26. 27. Pictures of NUC after the Rebel Attack Cont.