Jean-Marc LAVAUR, Xavier APARICIO, Lisa VANDEBERG & Ton DIJKSTRA
International Congress of Psychology
Berlin, Germany, Jul...
How many multilinguals in Europe?
23 official languages in the European Union
L1: dominant language (generally but not alw...
Multilingualism and
Cognitive Psychology
 Important number of researches concerning Bilingualism
in Cognitive Psychology
...
The Multilingual Lexicon
The mental lexicon is a part of human memory (Dijkstra, 2005)
It contains all kinds of informatio...
How to access
the multilingual lexicon?
Language selective access: organized by language
(Gerard & Scarborough, 1989)
LIRE...
Model of the architecture of
the multilingual lexicon
Different units are involved in orthographic processing: BIA+ Model
...
Relations between words of
different languages
(Lavaur & Font, 1998)
-Strong orthographic and phonological overlap between...
Cognates
Cognates are words for which the orthography, phonology
and meaning are similar/identical in different languages
...
Noncognates
Identical/Similar semantics in the three languages, different
orthography and phonology in all the three langu...
Double Cognates
identical/similar semantics in the three languages,
identical /similar orthography in only two languages
Triple Cognates
identical / similar semantics and orthography and phonology
in all three languages
Objectives
 How does the memory of trilinguals work
when the L1 is not explicitely solicited, or the
influence is suppose...
Hypothesis 1:
Influence or no influence
of the native language
Lexical decision task:
If L1 has an influence, cognate word...
Hypothesis 2:
Additional cognate effect
Lexical decision task:
words that have the same form in all languages
(triple cogn...
*FALDA
Spanish
*SKIRT
English
The participant has to decide as quickly and accurately
as possible to which language the wo...
Population and material
 Population: 24 undergraduate trilinguals, native speakers of French, with
English as a second la...
Results: interaction effects between
language and category
Specific words are globally processed faster
-Specific words pr...
Results: detailed interaction
effects between language and
category
Additional cognate effect
Discussion Experiment 1
 Language specific words are generally processed better than
cognates.
 Cognates have an influen...
*nouse
NO
*money
YES
The participant has to decide as quickly and accurately
as possible if the letterstring is an existin...
Method Experiment 2
 Population: same participants as in experiment 1
 Material: 72 French-English-Spanish translation e...
English Lexical Decision
- No standard cognate effect for
L1-L2 cognates vs L2 control
words
- L1-L2-L3 cognates got a fas...
Spanish Lexical Decision
 Cognate effect for
French-English-Spanish
cognates relative to
Spanish control words
 Triple c...
Discussion Experiment 2a:
English lexical decision
 In English LD, Cognate effect for L1-L2-L3 cognates
 Cognates in 3 l...
Discussion Experiment 2b:
Spanish lexical decision
 Cognate effect for L1-L3 cognates
 L1-L2-L3 cognate effect relative ...
General Discussion
 Results are supporting a non-selective access to the mental lexicon.
 Specific words are processed f...
Thanks for your
attention!
« In varietate concordia »
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Visual word recognition by trilinguals ICP2008 Berlin

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  • le
  • Enlever les espaces, refaire l’animation
  • Rajouter que les effets peuvebt etre facilitateurs ou inhibiteurs en fction de la tache
  • Revoir les couleurs descendre le texte
  • Coller novel et novela
  • Changer couleurs
  • Effet de la L1, changer le titre
  • Faire les modifications dans le texte
  • Faire les modifications dans le texte
  • Enlever english fillers et non words et mettre mots spécifiques. Enlever les écarts types
  • Virer les fillers et les non words. Mettre mots spécifiques
  • Reformuler la présentation des résultats
  • Revoir les résultats en général
  • Visual word recognition by trilinguals ICP2008 Berlin

    1. 1. Jean-Marc LAVAUR, Xavier APARICIO, Lisa VANDEBERG & Ton DIJKSTRA International Congress of Psychology Berlin, Germany, July 2008
    2. 2. How many multilinguals in Europe? 23 official languages in the European Union L1: dominant language (generally but not always the native language) L2: English for most countries and speakers (but English could also be found as a L3) L3: very diverse, depending on different factors (geographical, cultural, institutional, etc.)
    3. 3. Multilingualism and Cognitive Psychology  Important number of researches concerning Bilingualism in Cognitive Psychology  A large part of the researches concern the study of the bilingual mental lexicon  Next step: focus on multilingual communication and lexical processing
    4. 4. The Multilingual Lexicon The mental lexicon is a part of human memory (Dijkstra, 2005) It contains all kinds of information we know concerning languages and words: -orthography -phonology -semantics -syntax -additional information: languages (in multilinguals)
    5. 5. How to access the multilingual lexicon? Language selective access: organized by language (Gerard & Scarborough, 1989) LIRE LIRE DIRE French lexicon FIRE HIRE English lexicon Language non-selective access: organized by features (Dijkstra, Van Jaarsveld & Ten Brinke, 1998) LIRE LIRE DIRE FIRE HIRE LIRA ARIA French/English/Spanish shared lexicon LIRA ARIA Spanish lexicon
    6. 6. Model of the architecture of the multilingual lexicon Different units are involved in orthographic processing: BIA+ Model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002) L1/L2/ L3 Visual input
    7. 7. Relations between words of different languages (Lavaur & Font, 1998) -Strong orthographic and phonological overlap between languages and words: Example: -Weak orthographic and phonological overlap between languages and words: Example: Amour Amor Meat Carne Love Viande
    8. 8. Cognates Cognates are words for which the orthography, phonology and meaning are similar/identical in different languages (Bogaards, 1994) Facilitatory or inhibitory effects depending, in part, on the task context. CLASSE CLASS CLASE
    9. 9. Noncognates Identical/Similar semantics in the three languages, different orthography and phonology in all the three languages.
    10. 10. Double Cognates identical/similar semantics in the three languages, identical /similar orthography in only two languages
    11. 11. Triple Cognates identical / similar semantics and orthography and phonology in all three languages
    12. 12. Objectives  How does the memory of trilinguals work when the L1 is not explicitely solicited, or the influence is supposed to be limited to one of the two other languages ?  If the L1 has an influence, generalized to all the languages, what consequences on the working of trilingual memory?
    13. 13. Hypothesis 1: Influence or no influence of the native language Lexical decision task: If L1 has an influence, cognate words with French in English and/or Spanish will be recognized faster than words with different forms in these languages (noncognates) Language decision task: If L1 has an influence, cognate words with French in English and/or Spanish will be processed more slowly than words with different forms in these languages (noncognates)  Cognate facilitation effect  Cognate inhibition effect
    14. 14. Hypothesis 2: Additional cognate effect Lexical decision task: words that have the same form in all languages (triple cognates) will be recognized faster than words with (partially) different forms (double cognates/noncognates) Language decision task: words that have the same form in all languages (triple cognates) will be processed more slowly than words with (partially) different forms (double cognates/noncognates)  Additional facilitation effect  Additional inhibition effect
    15. 15. *FALDA Spanish *SKIRT English The participant has to decide as quickly and accurately as possible to which language the word belongs.
    16. 16. Population and material  Population: 24 undergraduate trilinguals, native speakers of French, with English as a second language and Spanish as a third language.  Material: 70 French-English-Spanish translation equivalents X 3 language decisions Specific words 14 Cognates L1-L2 14 Cognates L1-L3 14 Cognates L2-L3 14 Cognates L1-L2-L3 14  Procedure: each participant performs 3 language decision tasks, respectively L1-L2, L1-L3 et L2-L3.
    17. 17. Results: interaction effects between language and category Specific words are globally processed faster -Specific words processed faster in L1L2 and L2L3 decisions -No effect in L1L3 decision due to specific patterns between L1 and L3
    18. 18. Results: detailed interaction effects between language and category Additional cognate effect
    19. 19. Discussion Experiment 1  Language specific words are generally processed better than cognates.  Cognates have an influence on visual word processing.  Native language has an influence on the processing of other languages.  Results supporting a non specific access to the mental lexicon.
    20. 20. *nouse NO *money YES The participant has to decide as quickly and accurately as possible if the letterstring is an existing word or not.
    21. 21. Method Experiment 2  Population: same participants as in experiment 1  Material: 72 French-English-Spanish translation equivalents:  Procedure: each participant performs the 2 lexical decision tasks, respectively L2 et L3. Specific words 24 Cognates L1-L2 24 Cognates L1-L2-L3 24
    22. 22. English Lexical Decision - No standard cognate effect for L1-L2 cognates vs L2 control words - L1-L2-L3 cognates got a faster response
    23. 23. Spanish Lexical Decision  Cognate effect for French-English-Spanish cognates relative to Spanish control words  Triple cognates were not recognized significantly faster than double cognates.
    24. 24. Discussion Experiment 2a: English lexical decision  In English LD, Cognate effect for L1-L2-L3 cognates  Cognates in 3 languages were recognized faster than L1-L2 cognates  During recognition of words in a second language, even a third non-native language (L3) exerts an influence on recognition performance.
    25. 25. Discussion Experiment 2b: Spanish lexical decision  Cognate effect for L1-L3 cognates  L1-L2-L3 cognate effect relative to Spanish specific words.  Triple cognates were not recognized significantly faster than double cognates.
    26. 26. General Discussion  Results are supporting a non-selective access to the mental lexicon.  Specific words are processed faster than other kinds of words in Language Decision, and more slowly in Lexical Decision.  Shared patterns between languages have an influence on word visual processing.  Influence of native language on the two other languages’ processing.
    27. 27. Thanks for your attention! « In varietate concordia »

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