Capstone Senior Design Projects Comprehensive

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Comprehensive description of the capstone senior design course at the Department of Aerospace Engineering of the University of Colorado

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Capstone Senior Design Projects Comprehensive

  1. 1. Aerospace Engineering Sciences Capstone Senior Design Projects ASEN 4018/4028 How they prepare students for the workforce Jean N. Koster University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 14 February 2009
  2. 2. REAL WORLD STATUS 2008 • 20% Of the Workforce Is Eligible To Retire Today • One-third Of the Workforce Eligible To Retire In 5 Years • One-half Of the Workforce Eligible To Retire In 10 Years Greg Enders, LMCO, 2008 2
  3. 3. Capstone - Senior Projects • Two-semester 4+4 credit hour course. – Typically 8 teams with 7-10 members – Senior Projects I (ASEN 4018) focuses on the synthesis of undergraduate knowledge and the design process,. – Senior Projects II (ASEN 4028) focuses on the fabrication, integration, and verification of the designs produced in ASEN 4018. • Requirements-based Systems Engineering. • Synthesis and application of the fundamental core sciences, mathematics, and engineering theory. • Design, Fabrication & Testing, Verification and Validation of a complex component or system – CDIO: Conceive, Design, Implement, Operate • Project Advisory Board (PAB) of 9 Faculty and 2 Staff members advise student teams 3
  4. 4. AES Senior Projects Structure Course Machinist Coordinator Matt Rhode Electronics Trudy Schwartz 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors TEAM 2 TEAM 3 TEAM 4 TEAM 5 TEAM 6 TEAM 7 TEAM 8 TEAM 1 Customer Customer Customer Customer Customer Customer Customer Customer Maximum 8 Teams 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10 Students Students Students Students Students Students Students Students Project Advisor Board (PAB) – Total 9 faculty (1 course credit) and 2 staff 1 Course Coordinator (Jean Koster, 2008) 8 Faculty Team Advisors; advising 2 different teams each Each advisor duo is different Staff advisors: Matt Rhode and Trudy Schwartz 4
  5. 5. Typical Senior Projects Team Structure Self-directed teams operate like small entrepreneurial businesses 2 PAB Customer Advisors Project Systems Manager Engineer CFO Manufacturing Safety Engineer Engineer Common Subsystems: Mechanical Electrical Subsystem 1 Subsystem 2 Subsystem 3 Subsystem 4 Software Lead Engineer Lead Engineer Lead Engineer Lead Engineer Aerodynamics Structures Thermal 5
  6. 6. Course Milestones Foundation: Customer Project Proposal and Requirements Document (CPRD) Progress Evaluation Process and Deliverables: 1. Project Definition Document (PDD) 2. Conceptual Design Document (CDD) 3. Preliminary Design Review (PDR) 4. Critical Design Review (CDR) 5. Fall Final Report (FFR) 6. Spring Manufacturing Interim Reviews (IR1, IR2) 7. AIAA Student Regional Conference Paper 8. Spring Project Review (SPR) 9. Project Final Report (PFR) 10. ITLL Public Expo 6
  7. 7. Course Schedule Team Formation CPRD, PDD CDD CDR PDR Editing FFR Break Fall W01 W02 W03 W04 W05 W06 W06 W08 W09 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17 Detailed Design Preliminary Design Last Machining Day ITLL EXPO IR #2 IR #1 SPR Editing PFR Break Spring W01 W02 W03 W04 W05 W06 W06 W08 W09 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17 Manufacturing Integration and Test 7
  8. 8. Educational Support The Department provides weekly supporting lectures and specialty workshops during the Fall semester (ASEN 4018). Attendance at lectures is required for all; attendance at workshops is required for select positions. Lectures: Workshops: • • Project Selection System Engineers • • Conceptual design Program Managers • • Defining Requirements Team working • • Systems Engineering Fabrication (9) • • Mission Failures Measurements • • Project Management Electronics • • Running Meetings Power Systems • • Patent Law, IP Composite Fabrication • • Ethical Decision-Making Safety • • Entrepreneurship Fire 8
  9. 9. Deliverables 1 (PDD) Customer Requirements → Project Definition (PDD) –Background, Goal, Objectives, Functional Block Diagram, Concept of Operations –Top level Project Requirements (0.PRJ.xx) –Top level System Requirements (0.SYS.xx) –Minimum Requirements for Success –Deliverables Defined –Technical and Financial Risks –Team Formation and Team Expertise –Resources Defined 9
  10. 10. Deliverables 2 (CDD) Project Definition → Conceptual Design (CDD) – Team skills and positions – System Architecture (3 design options) – Requirements (3-5 most important reqs., rank) – Feasibility (for top ranked architecture option) – Testing and Verification requirements for key systems – Assess key risks and mitigation options – Assess team qualifications – Respond to criticism received on PDD – Resources availability update 10
  11. 11. Examples: Choosing System Architecture •Wheeled •Snake •Spider •Roller •UAV •Tracked System concept baseline study – selected wheeled architecture 11 ASEN 4018
  12. 12. Deliverables 3 (PDR) Conceptual Design → Preliminary Design (PDR) – Development and assessment of system design options; arguments for chosen architecture • Flow-down from functional needs to identified requirements – System Design-To specifications. Development and assessment of subsystem design options and design-to specifications • Preliminary itemization of required performance parameters – Project Feasibility Analysis and Risk Analysis • Define high risk sub-system for prototyping • Back-of-the-envelope, Matlab, preliminary analysis or test • Define optional “off-ramps” – Project Management Plan (preliminary) • Myers-Briggs analysis – Advisers may submit Request for Action (RFA) to teams. 12
  13. 13. Oral Presentations: PDR, CDR, IR1+2, SFR • Presentation to 11 PAB members and entire body of student • Customers are invited to attend. Separate presentation to customer recommended. • Presentations: 50 minutes: 25 min presentation and 25 min Q&A • Every student must present at least once each semester
  14. 14. Example: System Breakdown Structure Project: MARVLIS - 2007 6’’ Dimension, 10 min Endurance, Image Capture/Transmission with location, Launch Capability Structures Electronics Launcher Aerodynamics Aerodynamics Propulsion Airfoil Airframe Propeller Camera Spring Telescoping Planform Materials Motor/Gearbox Receiver Leg Launch Tail/Stabilizers Batteries GPS Electronics Control Speed MAV Interface Surfaces Controller Servos Legend System Subsystem Sub- Requirements s Subsystems 14 February 14, 2009 MARVLIS
  15. 15. Example: Design-To Specifications ReMuS 2008 Mother Rover Design-To Specifications 1. Baseline weight of 100 lbf. 2. Baseline dimensions of 3.5 ft. wide x 3.5 ft. long x 2.0 ft. high 3. Base of Mother = 4.25 in. from ground level 4. Mounted camera must see Children at all times Child Rover Design-To Specifications 1. Baseline weight of 15 lbf. 2. Baseline dimensions of 10 in. wide x 10 in. long x 8 in. high Ramp Design-To Specifications 1.Length of ramp is greater than length of Child rover 2.Ramp is 3x wider than Child rover 3.Ramp is placed on front or back of Mother rover only 4.Ramp will have ¼-in. ground clearance 15 (representative model only) Preliminary Design Review
  16. 16. Example: Aerodynamics Risk Justifications: • Wings too small Insufficient Improperly directional – Cannot take off in 75 ft, use batteries sized tail stability too fast – Mitigation: Prototyping Improperly • Improperly sized tail Wings too sized control Consequence small – Plane is unstable & uncontrollable surfaces – Mitigation: Margin & prototyping • Improperly sized control surfaces – Aircraft is uncontrollable – Mitigation: Extra analysis & margin • Insufficient directional stability – Aircraft stability is unknown and not considered – Mitigation: Adding a vertical fin & Possibility deflecting single rudder in turn, use drag to turn 16
  17. 17. Deliverable 4 (CDR) • System Architecture is fully documented at CDR • All subsystems are checked for feasibility and are given a “go” • Sub-system decomposition and integration is understood – Mechanical, electrical, and software elements are analyzed – All blue-prints are ready to enter the fabrication process • Interfaces between sub-systems are working well – Integration of sub-systems into units is understood • Manufacturing and System Integration Plan • The Testing and Verification Plan is finalized – Test concepts of operation are documented • Project Management Plan (PMP) is finalized • The System Engineer signed off on the proposed design • Manufacturing of components starts after successful completion of CDR. 17 B. S. Blanchard, W.J. Fabrycky, Systems Engineering and Analysis, Prentice Hall,2006.
  18. 18. System Example: System Design Architecture MADS 2008/9 1. Primary Vehicle (PV) • On-board PIC controls the Deployment Mechanism (DM) through Command and Data Handling (CDH) • Pilot controls the control surfaces 2. Deployment Mechanism (DM) • Consists of mounting point for the SV and linear actuator for pin-movement • Attached to the PV with bracketing system 3. Sub-Vehicle (SV) • CUPIC autopilot controls the control surfaces and motor settings through CDH • Payload is supplied with its own power 18 Critical Design Review
  19. 19. Deployment MDE Design Detail at CDR (MADS) Mechanism Deployment Mechanism Design-To Specs • The SVs shall be deployed on demand. • The DM shall weigh no more than 13 g • The DM shall be mounted on a rod (the bracket) capable of withstanding the expected loads. Deployment Mechanism Design Prototype & Testing Results • Actuator pulls a pin • Under vibrations from 0 Hz to 150 Hz, successful • Pin removes attachment to SV deployment 121/124 trials • DM weighs 9g • Confidence of 95 % in vibrations • DM mounted to an aluminum beam • During simulated aerodynamic loading, successful deployment 20/20 trials • Confidence of 99 % in aerodynamic loading 19 Critical Design Review
  20. 20. Example: Matlab Model 20 ASEN 4018
  21. 21. Example: Verification & Prototyping Tail Boom Test Load versus Displacement 0 Experimental -1 Theoretical -2 -3 Displacement (in) -4 -5 -6 3.65quot; At Estimated -7 Max Load -8 Failure at 23lbs -9 8.75quot; -10 0 5 10 15 20 25 Load (lbs) Conclusion: Need thicker boom due to deflection at max load. Based on experimental data: OD = .312” for 1.5” deflection (+1.3oz) 21 ASEN 4018
  22. 22. Deliverable 5 (FFR) The Fall Final report is a comprehensive documentation of the design process. The data package includes: Mechanical Drawings, Electrical Schematics, Software specifications Table of Content 7. Project Feasibility, Prototyping, 1. Project Objectives and and Risk Assessment Requirements 8. Mechanical Design Elements 2. System Architecture 3. Development and Assessment of 9. Electrical Design Elements System Design Alternatives 10. Software Design Elements 4. System Design-To Specifications 11. Integration Plan 5. Development and Assessment of Subsystem Design Alternatives 12. Verification and Test Plan 6. Subsystem Design-To 13. Project Management Plan Specifications 14. Appendices
  23. 23. Deliverable 6 (IR1 & IR2) The two informal Interim Reviews have the goal to inform the entire PAB about fabrication and testing progress • current manufacturing progress • progress in software development • progress with electronics modules • any design modifications • analysis of any “off-ramp” subsystems which require new system engineering analysis • changes in verification and test plan • preliminary testing results and analysis, • any changes in management plan and team organization • lessons learned and any issues that have occurred
  24. 24. Deliverable 7 (AIAA-paper) • All teams are required to prepare a paper on their project according to published AIAA guidelines for the Region V Regional Student Conference in Spring • Paper must be prepared according to the published AIAA Author Kit • Papers are graded according to quality as perceived by faculty advisers and any AIAA criteria • Actual submission to AIAA will be recommended by team advisers • Teams will participate in the Team Competition
  25. 25. Senior Design Student Paper Awards AIAA Region V Student Paper Conferences 2008 • First Place, Team Division (KRAKEN team) • Second Place, Team Division (MARVLIS team) 2007 • First Place, Team Division (SOARS team) • Best Student Paper, JANNAF Conference, MaCH-SR1 team 2002 • First Place, Undergraduate Division (Otto Krauss – MaCH-SR1 team) 25
  26. 26. Deliverable 8 (SFR) The Spring Final Review (SFR) marks the culmination of the senior design project. The oral presentation includes: – Project Objectives and Requirement – System Architecture and Component design – Fabrication and Integration – Experimental Test Results; Verification and Validation – Project Management – Lessons Learned – Project Conclusion and Summary
  27. 27. Deliverable 9 (PFR) The Project Final Report is a comprehensive documentation of results including design, integration, verification and validation, for both semesters 1. Project Objectives and 8. Mechanical Design Requirements Elements 2. System Architecture 9. Electrical Design Elements 3. Development and Assessment of System Design 10. Software Design Alternatives Elements 4. System Design-To 11. Integration Plan Specifications 12. Verification and 5. Development and Validation Assessment of Subsystem 13. Fabrication and Design Alternatives Integration 6. Subsystem Design-To 14. Project Management Plan Specifications 15. Lessons Learned 7. Project Feasibility and Risk 16. Appendices Assessment
  28. 28. Deliverable 10: ITLL Poster Presentation The major component of this assignment is for teams to communicate the project goals and accomplishments to a broad audience of non-specialists and K-12 students Poster elements: • Project Objectives and Requirements • Development of Design Alternatives • Final Design • Project Drawings, Schematics and Diagrams • Project Hardware • Experimental Test Results • Project Management
  29. 29. Example: ITLL Poster Presentation http://www.colorado.edu/ASEN/SrProjects 29
  30. 30. Conclusion The Capstone Senior Design course as implemented would not have been possible without the undergraduate Curriculum 2000 reform, which integrated the Conceive – Design – Implement - Operate (CDIO) elements into the entire undergraduate curriculum
  31. 31. History of Recent Projects - 1 To create an experimental apparatus that can BIRDIE Biologically-Inspired low trace out a given wing motion similar to a Reynolds number Dynamic hummingbird in hovering flight Imagery Experiment Provide a spinning satellite with a de-rotated DIABLO De-rotated Imager of the imaging system Aurora Borealis in Low- Earth Orbit To design, fabricate, integrate and verify a RC D-SUAVE Deployable Small UAV controlled UAV capable of being remotely Explorer deployed from the ARES aircraft and flying a specific flight pattern To provide the Colorado Space Grant PRV Peregrine Return Vehicle Consortium with a reusable vehicle that can return student built science payloads to a selected target Design, build and test an autonomous aerial SOARS Self Organizing Aerial system (UAS) capable of imaging multiple Reconnaissance System targets within a 1 km circle as quickly as possible with 99% probability of object detection (according to Johnson criteria) Supersonic wind tunnel (Mach number 1.5 – 2.5) SWIFT Supersonic Wind and and flow visualization system operable by Imaging Flow Tunnel undergraduate students
  32. 32. History of Recent Projects - 2 Design and build a prototype for locomotion VITL Vehicle for Icy Terrain system of a vehicle exploring a Europa-like surface Locomotion capable of traversing 1 km of icy terrain in 7 days with characteristic obstacles Conceive, design, fabricate, integrate, test, and BREW Bolt-on Racecar verify a device that allows the measurement of the Enhancing Wing downforce and drag of any rear wing for present and future CU FSAE cars Conceptualize, design, fabricate, test, and verify CALAMAR-E Cavity Actuated Low- synthetic jet actuators for a highly maneuverable, speed Actively low speed under water vehicle Maneuverable Aquatic Rover Experiment Produce a wing that demonstrates roll control Flap and Aileron without mechanical linkages by integration of Replacement System smart materials as actuators Conceive, design, fabricate, integrate, and verify a MaCH-SR1 Multi-disciplinary self-sufficient hybrid rocket engine Conceive, design, fabricate, and test a deployable MARS Meteorological Aerial dual-mode sonde system that will provide multi- Research Sonde unit communications ability capable of sustained flight times and controlled flight
  33. 33. History of Recent Projects -3 Design, build, test a return vehicle for scientific HARRV High Altitude Research payloads released from high altitude balloons Return Vehicle to proximity of balloon launch site Design a model space elevator system to compete SPEC Space Elevator Climber in the Spaceward Foundation “Elevator 2010” competition. Design, fabricate , and characterize a FanWing Short TakeOff Wing device Conceive, design, fabricate, integrate, test, and HAVUC Heavy-lift Aerial Vehicle for the verify an un-inhabitated aerial vehicle (UAV) with a heavy-lift capability that has an empty weight no greater than 10 lb; heavy-lift being defined as the payload contributing a minimum of 60% to the total takeoff weight Develop a low-cost, easy to operate, and reliable SHARC Stable Handling Aerial Radio- aerial vehicle for testing of sensor payloads controlled Cargo-testbed Design, build, fly a high-volume payload CUBDF Design-Build-Fly competitive aircraft after AIAA competition guidelines.
  34. 34. History of Recent Projects -4 APTERA Aero-Braking Project To Design, build, and test a deployable device Effectively Reduce Altitude which will increase aerodynamic drag with the intent of changing the orbit of the DANDE satellite from 600km to 350km within 300 days. Mach-SR1 Multi-disciplinary Hybrid Student design, build, test, integrate feed, injection and Rocket Project ignition subsystems into a flight configuration for a hybrid rocket to deliver a 0.5 kg payload to an altitude of 4,500 m. KRAKEN Kinematically Roving Design, build, competitively test an unmanned Autonomously controlled Electro- underwater vehicle equipped with vortex ring Nautic thrusters MARVLIS Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle Design, fabricate, and test a micro air vehicle Launch and Imaging System capable of capturing an image and transmitting it with a time and position stamp ADAMSS Aerially Deployed Autonomously Design and build a system that can remotely place Monitored Surface Sensors low-cost disposable sensors, collect science data, and then retrieve this data all without on-site human interaction ARCTIC Arctic Region Climate Tracking The goal is to develop a payload that provides arctic and Instrumentation Cargo climate data measurements at otherwise inaccessible earth-fixed locations. The payload will be constructed for an InSitu Insight A-20 UAV.
  35. 35. History of Recent Projects -5 MADS Miniature Aircraft Deployment Goal is to develop a system that can attach to System the radio-controlled (RC) primary vehicle capable of in-flight deployment of 4 secondary vehicles that are capable of self-sustained flight. ReMuS Re-deployable Multi-rover System The goal of this project is to provide a proof-of- concept for an interacting multi-robot system. Two child robots will detach from the mother, perform tasks and reattach to the mother. SUAV Solar Unmanned Aerial Vehicle The goal is to modify a high performance sailplane by the addition of a structurally integrated photovoltaic System in order to extend the standard endurance of the aircraft by 250%. SWARM Systematic Waypoint based Design an autopilot, communication Autonomous Reconnaissance infrastructure, and coordination algorithm MAVs compatible with Micro Air Vehicles. Integrate autonomous launch and flight in swarm with rigid algorithm control. VALASARAPTOR Vertical Ascent and Landing Design and build modifications that will outfit an Aircraft for the Study of existing remote controlled UAV with VTOL and Atmospherics in Recording hovering capabilities and carry a NOAA Acoustic Propagation of Terrestrial designed probe. and Oceanic Radiation
  36. 36. CU-AES Senior Design Webpage: http://www.colorado.edu/ASEN/SrProjects AES Senior Design Network http://aesseniordesign.ning.com/ http://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=159152 Contact: Jean.Koster@Colorado.edu +(303)492-6945 36

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