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Bed Bugs 101
    (abbreviated version for web)




Dr. Susan C. Jones
Associate Professor
Dept. of Entomology
First things first:

Don’t use bug bombs to
    treat bed bugs!
    - ”Bug Bombs” (“foggers”) don’t work

    - Few bugs will be killed!

     - “Bug Bombs” may cause bed bugs to scatter!!!

                     “Bug Bombs” will worsen the
                          bed bug problem!!
BED BUG HABITS
• Cannot fly
• Can walk very fast
•


    Typically hide during the day in dark,
    protected sites (esp. cracks & crevices)
• Prefer fabric, wood, and paper surfaces
•


• Can cling tightly to surfaces
Bed bugs are very
    good hitchhikers!
Bed bugs can be moved from one
place to another by hiding in:
     • luggage
     • furniture
     • bedding
     • backpacks, purses, briefcases
     • clothing
     • …
Bed Bugs Hiding in Luggage
In multi-family housing, bed bugs readily
 spread to units that are adjacent, below,
       and above the infested unit.
Some Reasons For the
  Resurgence of Bed Bugs

• International travel and commerce
• Housing with high tenant turnover
• Pesticide use has changed
  – Pesticide bans
  – Baits to control ants & cockroaches
• Insecticide resistance
Some Reasons For the
 Resurgence of Bed Bugs
• International travel and commerce

• Housing with high tenant turnover

• Pesticide use has changed
   – Pesticide bans
   – Baits to control ants & cockroaches

• Insecticide resistance
Bed Bugs
 (Cimex lectularius)

  •   Insects (true bugs)
  •   Temporary external parasites
  •   Feed only on blood
  •   Often closely associated with
      hosts’ sleeping or resting sites
      (hide in many places)
  Not caused by bad housekeeping!!
BED BUGS CAN HAPPEN TO ANYONE!
Bed Bug Feeding Habits
• Typically feed at night
• Prefer to feed on humans
• May feed on other animals
   • rodents, bats, birds
   • pets (cats, dogs, etc.)
• Locate their host using cues such as
  carbon dioxide and heat
If you wake up with itchy, red welts that
  weren’t there when you went to bed,
         perhaps its bed bugs.
       BED BUGS BITES:
    • Initial bite is painless
    • Resemble bites from other
      insects & kin
    • Some clues that it may be
      bed bug bites:
       • Typically are on exposed
          skin
       • Often in groups or rows
           Confirmation based on
         finding bed bug evidence
Injury From Bed Bugs

• Allergic reaction in ~70% of humans
      • Welts
      • Severe itching
• Anemia
• Asthma
• Scratching of bites increases inflammation,
  can lead to secondary bacterial infections
• No conclusive evidence of disease
  transmission (reviewed by Goddard & deShazo.
  2009. JAMA 301(13): 1358-1366)
INJURY FROM BED BUGS
   • Sleeplessness
   • Agitation
   • Anxiety
   • Economic hardship
   •…
August 2010

                                                      CDC & EPA
                                                         Joint
                                                      Statement

                                                  Bed bugs are a
                                                 pest of significant
                                                   public health
                                                   importance!


http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Publications/Bed_Bugs_CDC-EPA_Statement.htm
http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/bedbugs/
How to recognize if
  it’s a bed bug
  • Beak-like mouthparts
  • Oval shaped body
  • Adults: ~1/4 to 3/8 inch long
  • Body flattened (unfed)
  • Body swollen (recently fed)
Egg
                                ~0.04 inch (1 mm) long
                                    Glued in place
                                                            1st stage nymph
                                                           ~0.06 inch (1.5 mm) long
                                                             Takes a blood meal
                                                                  then molts




Adult (male & female)
                                   LIFE CYCLE
  ~0.26 inch (6.5 mm) long
Takes repeated blood meals;
                                     OF THE
   life span ~1 to 1½ yrs
                                    BED BUG                                     2nd stage nymph
                                                                                ~0.08 inch (2 mm) long
                                                                                 Takes a blood meal
                                (Cimex lectularius)                                  then molts
                               Note: These images depict bugs with
                                  a partly digested blood meal.

                                        © The Ohio State University
                                           Dr. Susan C. Jones &
                                            Benjamin R. Diehl

     5th stage nymph
    ~0.18 inch (4.5 mm) long                                           3rd stage nymph
      Takes a blood meal                                               ~0.1 inch (2.5 mm) long
           then molts                                                   Takes a blood meal
                                      4th stage nymph                         then molts
                                     ~0.12 inch (3 mm) long
                                 Takes a blood meal then molts
IDENTIFICATION SERVICES
The Ohio Department of Health (ODH)
   –   A free service to Ohioans
   –   ID insects, spiders or other arthropods of medical or public
       health significance (e.g., bed bugs, wasps, flies, maggots, ...)
   –   Submit the sample via your local health dept.



The Ohio State University
   –   Fee for identification services ($20 for insect sample)
   –   ID wide variety of insects and arthropods and plant diseases
   –   OSU submission form available online:
       http://ppdc.osu.edu
Life History Characteristics Show
That Bed Bug Numbers Can Quickly
Skyrocket … (Early Detection and Treatment
                        are Very Important)
       Eggs
           Glued in place
           1 – 12 eggs / day / female
           A single female can produce ~150 eggs
           Hatch in 6 – 17 days

         Nymphs (immature bugs)
              Five nymphal stages
              Require a blood meal in order to grow

                Adults (males & females)
                   Require repeated blood meals
                   Can live 12 – 18 months
                   Can survive months of starvation
Where do bed bugs hide?
        • Mattresses, box springs
        • Bed frames
        • Furniture
        • Carpets and rugs
        • Cracks and crevices
          • Baseboards
          • Window frames and door frames
          • Electric outlets and switch plates
          • Drapery pleats
          • Peeling wallpaper
          • Carpet tack strip
        • Suitcases
        •…
Bed Bugs Hiding in
Mattresses and Box Springs
Bed Bugs Hiding in Furniture




                bed frame
Bed Bugs Hiding Behind A
    Hanging Picture
Bed Bug Prevention

• Recognize the tell tale signs
  of bed bugs
• Take measures to reduce the
  risk of getting bed bugs
• Prevent bugs from spreading
  to new sites
BED BUG PREVENTION
          FOR TRAVELERS
Make it STANDARD PRACTICE to check
for bed bugs in hotel/motel rooms!
    •   Pull back the bedding and look for black fecal spots on mattress
        & box springs (esp. seams)

    •   Carefully examine the underside of the bed skirt

    •   Look for bb signs along bed frame (especially head board)

    •   Open nightstand drawers and look for bb signs along inner and
        outer edges

    •   Look for bb signs along baseboards

    DON’T STAY IN A ROOM THAT HAS BB SIGNS
BED BUG PREVENTION
               FOR TRAVELERS
            Reduce the chances of getting bed
              bugs from hotel/motel rooms!

• Keep clothes in your zipped suitcase
   • Don’t keep clothes in hotel chest-of-drawers
   • OK to hang clothes in closet

• Keep your suitcase on the luggage rack
  (after first inspecting it for bb signs)
    • Don’t store your suitcase on the bed, floor,
      or upholstered furniture

•   The bathroom (tub) is the best place to store your items!
Contact a professional pest control
         company to treat for bed bugs


• Make sure properly
  licensed to apply
  pesticides

• ODA web site lists
  licensed pest mgt.
  companies and
  applicators
Contact a professional pest control
   company to treat for bed bugs

Once you’ve made sure they are properly
licensed to apply pesticides:

• It’s advisable to obtain at least 3
  estimates
• Check for satisfied customer references
  that relate to bed bug control
• Recognize that bed bug control typically
  takes several insecticide treatments
DO NOT use “bug bombs”
   against bed bugs!
  - ”Bug Bombs” (“foggers”) don’t work
  - Few bugs will be killed!
  - “Bug Bombs” may cause bed bugs to
    scatter!!!

   “Bug Bombs” will worsen the
        bed bug problem!!
What if can’t pay for treatment?

• Follow steps for prep (clean,
  vacuum)
• Contact exterminators to see if
  payment plan is option
• Try to limit exposure to invested
  areas to limit spread
DO NOT use “bug bombs”
   against bed bugs!
  - ”Bug Bombs” (“foggers”) don’t work
  - Few bugs will be killed!
  - “Bug Bombs” may cause bed bugs to
    scatter!!!

   “Bug Bombs” will worsen the
        bed bug problem!!
Thank You!

   Sleep tight,
and don’t let the …
… well, you know the rest

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Bedbug101slideshow

  • 1. Bed Bugs 101 (abbreviated version for web) Dr. Susan C. Jones Associate Professor Dept. of Entomology
  • 2. First things first: Don’t use bug bombs to treat bed bugs! - ”Bug Bombs” (“foggers”) don’t work - Few bugs will be killed! - “Bug Bombs” may cause bed bugs to scatter!!! “Bug Bombs” will worsen the bed bug problem!!
  • 3. BED BUG HABITS • Cannot fly • Can walk very fast • Typically hide during the day in dark, protected sites (esp. cracks & crevices) • Prefer fabric, wood, and paper surfaces • • Can cling tightly to surfaces
  • 4. Bed bugs are very good hitchhikers! Bed bugs can be moved from one place to another by hiding in: • luggage • furniture • bedding • backpacks, purses, briefcases • clothing • …
  • 5. Bed Bugs Hiding in Luggage
  • 6. In multi-family housing, bed bugs readily spread to units that are adjacent, below, and above the infested unit.
  • 7. Some Reasons For the Resurgence of Bed Bugs • International travel and commerce • Housing with high tenant turnover • Pesticide use has changed – Pesticide bans – Baits to control ants & cockroaches • Insecticide resistance
  • 8. Some Reasons For the Resurgence of Bed Bugs • International travel and commerce • Housing with high tenant turnover • Pesticide use has changed – Pesticide bans – Baits to control ants & cockroaches • Insecticide resistance
  • 9. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) • Insects (true bugs) • Temporary external parasites • Feed only on blood • Often closely associated with hosts’ sleeping or resting sites (hide in many places) Not caused by bad housekeeping!! BED BUGS CAN HAPPEN TO ANYONE!
  • 10. Bed Bug Feeding Habits • Typically feed at night • Prefer to feed on humans • May feed on other animals • rodents, bats, birds • pets (cats, dogs, etc.) • Locate their host using cues such as carbon dioxide and heat
  • 11. If you wake up with itchy, red welts that weren’t there when you went to bed, perhaps its bed bugs. BED BUGS BITES: • Initial bite is painless • Resemble bites from other insects & kin • Some clues that it may be bed bug bites: • Typically are on exposed skin • Often in groups or rows Confirmation based on finding bed bug evidence
  • 12. Injury From Bed Bugs • Allergic reaction in ~70% of humans • Welts • Severe itching • Anemia • Asthma • Scratching of bites increases inflammation, can lead to secondary bacterial infections • No conclusive evidence of disease transmission (reviewed by Goddard & deShazo. 2009. JAMA 301(13): 1358-1366)
  • 13. INJURY FROM BED BUGS • Sleeplessness • Agitation • Anxiety • Economic hardship •…
  • 14. August 2010 CDC & EPA Joint Statement Bed bugs are a pest of significant public health importance! http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Publications/Bed_Bugs_CDC-EPA_Statement.htm http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/bedbugs/
  • 15. How to recognize if it’s a bed bug • Beak-like mouthparts • Oval shaped body • Adults: ~1/4 to 3/8 inch long • Body flattened (unfed) • Body swollen (recently fed)
  • 16. Egg ~0.04 inch (1 mm) long Glued in place 1st stage nymph ~0.06 inch (1.5 mm) long Takes a blood meal then molts Adult (male & female) LIFE CYCLE ~0.26 inch (6.5 mm) long Takes repeated blood meals; OF THE life span ~1 to 1½ yrs BED BUG 2nd stage nymph ~0.08 inch (2 mm) long Takes a blood meal (Cimex lectularius) then molts Note: These images depict bugs with a partly digested blood meal. © The Ohio State University Dr. Susan C. Jones & Benjamin R. Diehl 5th stage nymph ~0.18 inch (4.5 mm) long 3rd stage nymph Takes a blood meal ~0.1 inch (2.5 mm) long then molts Takes a blood meal 4th stage nymph then molts ~0.12 inch (3 mm) long Takes a blood meal then molts
  • 17. IDENTIFICATION SERVICES The Ohio Department of Health (ODH) – A free service to Ohioans – ID insects, spiders or other arthropods of medical or public health significance (e.g., bed bugs, wasps, flies, maggots, ...) – Submit the sample via your local health dept. The Ohio State University – Fee for identification services ($20 for insect sample) – ID wide variety of insects and arthropods and plant diseases – OSU submission form available online: http://ppdc.osu.edu
  • 18. Life History Characteristics Show That Bed Bug Numbers Can Quickly Skyrocket … (Early Detection and Treatment are Very Important)  Eggs  Glued in place  1 – 12 eggs / day / female  A single female can produce ~150 eggs  Hatch in 6 – 17 days  Nymphs (immature bugs)  Five nymphal stages  Require a blood meal in order to grow  Adults (males & females)  Require repeated blood meals  Can live 12 – 18 months  Can survive months of starvation
  • 19. Where do bed bugs hide? • Mattresses, box springs • Bed frames • Furniture • Carpets and rugs • Cracks and crevices • Baseboards • Window frames and door frames • Electric outlets and switch plates • Drapery pleats • Peeling wallpaper • Carpet tack strip • Suitcases •…
  • 20. Bed Bugs Hiding in Mattresses and Box Springs
  • 21. Bed Bugs Hiding in Furniture bed frame
  • 22. Bed Bugs Hiding Behind A Hanging Picture
  • 23. Bed Bug Prevention • Recognize the tell tale signs of bed bugs • Take measures to reduce the risk of getting bed bugs • Prevent bugs from spreading to new sites
  • 24. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS Make it STANDARD PRACTICE to check for bed bugs in hotel/motel rooms! • Pull back the bedding and look for black fecal spots on mattress & box springs (esp. seams) • Carefully examine the underside of the bed skirt • Look for bb signs along bed frame (especially head board) • Open nightstand drawers and look for bb signs along inner and outer edges • Look for bb signs along baseboards DON’T STAY IN A ROOM THAT HAS BB SIGNS
  • 25. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS Reduce the chances of getting bed bugs from hotel/motel rooms! • Keep clothes in your zipped suitcase • Don’t keep clothes in hotel chest-of-drawers • OK to hang clothes in closet • Keep your suitcase on the luggage rack (after first inspecting it for bb signs) • Don’t store your suitcase on the bed, floor, or upholstered furniture • The bathroom (tub) is the best place to store your items!
  • 26. Contact a professional pest control company to treat for bed bugs • Make sure properly licensed to apply pesticides • ODA web site lists licensed pest mgt. companies and applicators
  • 27. Contact a professional pest control company to treat for bed bugs Once you’ve made sure they are properly licensed to apply pesticides: • It’s advisable to obtain at least 3 estimates • Check for satisfied customer references that relate to bed bug control • Recognize that bed bug control typically takes several insecticide treatments
  • 28. DO NOT use “bug bombs” against bed bugs! - ”Bug Bombs” (“foggers”) don’t work - Few bugs will be killed! - “Bug Bombs” may cause bed bugs to scatter!!! “Bug Bombs” will worsen the bed bug problem!!
  • 29. What if can’t pay for treatment? • Follow steps for prep (clean, vacuum) • Contact exterminators to see if payment plan is option • Try to limit exposure to invested areas to limit spread
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. DO NOT use “bug bombs” against bed bugs! - ”Bug Bombs” (“foggers”) don’t work - Few bugs will be killed! - “Bug Bombs” may cause bed bugs to scatter!!! “Bug Bombs” will worsen the bed bug problem!!
  • 35. Thank You! Sleep tight, and don’t let the … … well, you know the rest