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  1. 1. Comparative Methods in Social Sciences, V Kazimierz M. Slomczynski Irina Tomescu-Dubrow
  2. 3. Research Units <ul><li>Equivalence of Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalence of Selection </li></ul>
  3. 4. Research Methods <ul><li>Equivalence of Data Collection Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalence of Measurement Instruments </li></ul>
  4. 5. Research Administration <ul><li>Equivalence of Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalence of Interaction </li></ul>
  5. 6. Data Handling <ul><li>Equivalence of Response Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalence of Response Categories </li></ul>
  6. 7. Research Topics - Analyses <ul><li>Conceptual Equivalence - indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical Equivalence - constructs </li></ul>
  7. 8. Measurement <ul><li>Properties of a good measurement in sociological research. </li></ul><ul><li>M = T + e </li></ul><ul><li>M = what we really were able to measure, T = true state of affairs that were supposed to be measured, e = error term. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Errors <ul><li>Response Style (RS) is the tendency of some respondents to favor or avoid answering in extreme intervals or categories on rating scales, independent of specific item content </li></ul>
  9. 10. SR <ul><li>Leniency : the tendency to rate something too high or too low (i.e., rate in an extreme categories) </li></ul><ul><li>Central tendency : reluctance to give extreme scores </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity : give similar responses to items that occur close to one another. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Validity <ul><li>Validity = A measuring instrument is valid if it does what it is intended to do. Validation always requires empirical assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Validity is concerned with whether a variable measures what is supposed to measure. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Content validity </li></ul><ul><li>B. Criterion validity </li></ul><ul><li>C. Construct validity </li></ul><ul><li>D. Cross-validation by the convergence of independent methods </li></ul>
  11. 12. Reliability <ul><li>Reliability = the consistency of measurement. To the extent that all individuals are consistent for the repeated (same) stimulus, the measure is reliable. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Test-retest Method </li></ul><ul><li>B. Cronbach’s Alpha </li></ul><ul><li>How do these concept apply to cross-national research? </li></ul>
  12. 13. Factor analysis approach <ul><li>Basic Ideas of Factor Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal of factor analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation and covariance matrices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two basic questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To what extent do a set of observed variables measure the same underlying construct? </li></ul><ul><li>How many different underlying constructs are needed to account for correlations among a set of observed variables? </li></ul>
  13. 14. The history of factor analysis and its applications <ul><li>Beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Pearson’s rule of principal axes (1901) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Spearman’s (1904) bi-factor model of intelligence: g-factor (factor of general ability), and an s-factor (specific component). </li></ul><ul><li>Major development </li></ul><ul><li>Harold Hotelling’s rule of principal components (1933). </li></ul><ul><li>First sociology applications </li></ul><ul><li>Blalock (1964), Duncan (1966) </li></ul>
  14. 15. Causality in the measurement <ul><li>Error term of the construct vs. error term of the observables </li></ul><ul><li>Principal component model vs. principal axis model </li></ul>
  15. 16. The strategy is to create a functionally equivalent measure of X <ul><li>1 – the exploratory factor analysis to create the best country-specific X. </li></ul><ul><li>2 – the confirmatory factor analysis to specify a common (cross-country uniform) X. </li></ul><ul><li>3 – the comparison of the factor structures of the country-specific and common scales of X. </li></ul><ul><li>4 – the examination of correlations between the country-specific and common scales. </li></ul><ul><li>5 - the examination of correlations between (a) the country-specific scales and external variables, and (b) and the common scale and external variables </li></ul>
  16. 17. Emic and etic <ul><li>Emic and etic are terms used by social sciences to refer to two different kinds of information concerning attitudes and behavior. Introduces in linguistics (Kenneth Lee Pike (1967) </li></ul><ul><li>An &quot;emic&quot; indicator is a description of behavior or a belief in terms meaningful (consciously or unconsciously) to the actor. It is country-specific. </li></ul><ul><li>An &quot;etic&quot; indicator is a description of a behavior or belief by an observer, in terms that can be applied to other cultures; that is, an etic account is 'culturally neutral'. </li></ul>