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Service as-a-software


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Service as-a-software

  1. 1. Service-as-a-Software, (the other SaaS) Jean-Jacques Dubray, Ph.D. Founder, Convergence Modeling LLC @metapgmr
  2. 2. Joshua Robin, Mass DOT • In 2010, Joshua Robin, from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation delivered a seminal talk at eGov 2.0 2010 detailing what happened when the DOT started sharing its data (schedules and real time data) as APIs • Within hours developers started to build apps • Lots of apps, for different groups of people and usage patterns
  3. 3. A Profound Transformation is Happening …
  4. 4. Operating System Users[Roles] Apps Operating System Onboard Files The role of an operating System it to govern a (small) number of outcomes: add user, apps, files, login user, start app, …
  5. 5. (Physical) Service Users[Roles] Actions Search Book Pay … AirBnB Rooms Onboard
  6. 6. Service An orchestration of resources and skills that governs a consistent outcome of activities Software A set of machine-readable instructions
  7. 7. Service-as-a-Software Apps Actions Users Search Book Pay … AirBnB Rooms Onboard
  8. 8. Service-as-a-Software is about enabling the consumption of a (physical) service from a set of machine-readable instructions
  9. 9. Why is Service-as-a-Software so important today? Context, We never consume a service without a purpose… the contexts in which services are consumed is nearly endless and today, end users expect that they will be able to consume services in the context of the activities they want to accomplish
  10. 10. Search is no longer “cool”, in fact it is highly inefficient Compare how we consume services today… search 1 2 Activity: I want to visit Sydney actor purchase travel 3 do 4
  11. 11. Commerce is being Integrated with the Activities People do select QoS search 1 A 2 pay actor 3 travel 4 Activity: I want to visit Sydney for a week in December do B purchase C reserve D book
  12. 12. Getty Images Connect APIs Photographers Media Advertising Agencies Users Actions Search Buy Download … Onboard Pictures Source: Connect by Getty Images
  13. 13. News Writers can Consume Getty Images’ Service Directly from the Activity they Perform Service-as-a-Software write article search 1 actor S 2 D Activity: select As a journalist, I want to K picture spend my time writing A B purchase news articles 3 publish Source: Connect by Getty Images
  14. 14. This Transformation has Profound Economic Implications Product variants adapted for all dimensions Sales of variants per dimension Sales Sales of single product across all dimensions dimensions
  15. 15. APIs are as important as Business Processes (once were) Core Context Differentiation Standard Innovation Commoditized Mission Critical Enabling Goeffrey Moore: Core vs Context
  16. 16. How did we get here ?
  17. 17. What just happened? 2007-2010 • Libraries Black boxes • Limited Data Communications Good Enough • Business Integration APIs + Apps • Monolithic Architecture Composite (OAuth) • Difficult to Scale Cloud • Business Model Monetization
  18. 18. Anyone Remembers Numerical Recipes? If there is a single dominant theme in this book, it is that practical methods of numerical computation can be simultaneously efficient, clever, and — important — clear. ! The alternative viewpoint, that efficient computational methods must necessarily be so arcane and complex as to be useful only in "black box" form, we firmly reject Source: Wikipedia
  19. 19. Black Boxes or Libraries? • As it turned out, the 1980s were fertile years for the "black box" side, yielding important integrated environments like MATLAB and Mathematica ! ! • Eventually the authors of Numerical Recipe recognized that the book was increasingly valued for their explanatory text than their code examples Source: Wikipedia
  20. 20. The Web vs The Fallacies of Distributed Computing 1. The network is reliable Web connections are brief 2. Latency is zero Web connections are good enough with notable exceptions (e.g. HFT) 3. Bandwidth is infinite Web is good enough 4. Network is Secure Web may no longer be good enough 5. Topology doesn’t change Topology issues are hidden by HTTP 6. There is one administrator Web is (mostly ;-) decentralized 7. Transport Cost is zero Web is good enough 8. The Network is homogeneous Finally, yes, the network is! Source: Tim Bray, 2009
  21. 21. From Business Integration … to APIs • EDIFACT (1987) • Convergence between UN and US/ANSI (UN/EDIFACT) • syntax rules to structure data • interactive exchange protocol (I-EDI) • standard messages (multi-country, multi-industry)
  22. 22. Source: David Webber & Anthony Dutton
  23. 23. Source: John Yunker
  24. 24. Computation of the status of a Business Transaction Activity Source: ebXML BP 2.0.4
  25. 25. … APIs
  26. 26. App3 App4 App5 App6 2007 App2 Service Interface App1 Service Interface Monolithic Software Architecture has Undergone a Tectonic Shift towards Composite Applications Composite 2013 ServiceA ServiceB App ServiceC
  27. 27. Monetization is the “invisible hand” … … it is not just about distributed computing Service-as-a-Software search Activity: As a journalist, I want to spend my time writing news articles S D K A B purchase
  28. 28. Are we there yet?
  29. 29. There is still lots of Technical Problems to Solve Mike Amundsen: How to Create Reusable APIs? • Stop mapping semantics to protocols • Stop hiding update & query rules in human-readable documentation • Stop requiring devs to be protocol gurus • Stop making everyone use the same object model • Stop describing services as single instances • Stop baking workflow into client code • Stop breaking others people's code • Stop making client devs re-code & re-deploy at random • Stop adding single points of failure • Stop pretending the Web defies the laws of probability and physics
  30. 30. Workflow Semantics Object Model Protocols Message Network Architecture
  31. 31. Where are the hot spots? Monetization API Gateways Management SDKs Apps Composition / Orchestration Hypermedia Security Reliable ad hoc Messaging Transactions ad hoc JSON, JSON-Schema Messaging Swagger, WADL, RAML … Description HTTP Protocol
  32. 32. Four Principles to Succeed at SOA -> APIs 1 1.  Service Interface shall be decoupled from Service Implementation 2 2.  All Business Logic shall be normalized 3 3.  Changing a service shall be easy •  Changes shall be hidden to service consumers until they are ready •  Changes shall be easy to consume when the consumer is ready 4.  4 Service Versioning shall be based on Compatibility
  33. 33. The “Platform” will come into Play End user buys apps, goods trusts stores, shares data Apps buys assets 3rd Party Developer trusts Platform Operator utilizes end-user data Actions trusts trusts Search Book Pay … utilizes end user data (e.g music lists, eBooks, pictures…) Service Owner Rooms utilizes end-user data Resource Owner (e.g. Digital Asset Producer,...)
  34. 34. Conclusion
  35. 35. ! We Need to Revisit the Way we Think about Services • Think Service-as-a-Software • Operating System • Services govern Outcomes On boarding Think about services in the broader context of the “Platform” • • • Platform Oriented Architecture • Activities vs search • Think Topology • Technology enablers like APIs, Mobile Computing, and Cloud are redefining our societies • Education: MOOCs • Commerce: Zulily • Presence (Social Media) • … • We are at the onset of a massive Economic Transformation • Accessible to every human, in the most remote villages • With the potential to optimize and enrich everything we do