Chapter20 radiology and diagnostic imaging terminology


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter20 radiology and diagnostic imaging terminology

  1. 1. Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging
  2. 2. Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview <ul><li>X-rays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-energy electromagnetic waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel in straight lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter wave length than visible light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of exposing a photographic plate (X-ray film) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much the same way as a camera exposes film </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>X-rays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of X-rays </li></ul></ul>Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview
  4. 4. PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging
  5. 5. <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( an -jee-oh-kar-dee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( CAR -dee-ak kath -eh-ter-ih- ZAY -shun) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually of an arm or a leg, and is then threaded through circulatory system to the heart </li></ul></ul>Angiocardiography (Cardiac Catheterization)
  6. 6. Angiography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( an -jee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of X-ray films allowing visualization of internal structures after the introduction of a radiopaque substance </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cerebral Angiography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(seh- REE -bral an -jee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( SER -eh-bral an -jee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral, or brachial) to make visualization of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray possible </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Renal Angiography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( REE -nal an -jee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray visualization of internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels (blood vessels of the kidney) after injection of a contrast medium </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Arteriography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( ar -tee-ree- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray visualization of arteries following the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium into the bloodstream through a specific vessel by way of a catheter </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Arthrography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(ar- THROG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of taking X-rays of the inside of a joint, after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast medium makes the inside of the joint visible </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Barium Enema (BE) <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( BAH -ree-um EN -eh-mah) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast medium is retained in lower intestinal tract while X-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Barium Swallow (Upper GI Series) <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( BAH -ree-um SWALL -oh) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays are taken as barium sulfate flows into the upper GI tract </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Bronchography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(brong- KOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchial examination via X-ray following the coating of the bronchi with a radiopaque substance </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cholangiography (Intravenous) <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(koh- lan -jee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(in-trah- VEE -nus) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualizing and outlining of the major bile ducts following an intravenous injection of a contrast medium </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cholangiography (Percutaneous Transhepatic) <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(koh- lan -jee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( per -kyoo- TAY -nee-us trans -heh- PAT -ik) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examination of bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as PTC or PTHC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(koh- lan -jee-oh- pan -kree-ah- TOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(en-doh- SKOP -ic RET -roh-grayd) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope </li></ul></ul>Cholangiopancreatography (Endoscopic Retrograde)
  17. 17. Cholecystography (Oral) <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(koh -lee-sis- TOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualization of the gallbladder through X-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( sin -eh- ray -dee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic technique combining the techniques of fluoroscopy, radiography, and cinematography by filming the images that develop on a fluorescent screen with a movie camera </li></ul></ul>Cineradiography
  19. 19. <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(kom- PEW -ted AK -see-al toh- MOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painless, noninvasive diagnostic X-ray procedure using ionizing radiation that produces a cross-sectional image of the body </li></ul></ul>Computed Axial Tomography (CT, CAT)
  20. 20. Computed Axial Tomography
  21. 21. Voiding Cystourethrography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( VOYD -ing sis -toh-yoo-ree- THROG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( DIJ -ih-tal sub- TRAK -shun an -jee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray images of blood vessels only, appearing without any background, due to the use of a computerized digital video subtraction process </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Echocardiography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( ek -oh- kar -dee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart via ultrasound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Fluoroscopy <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( floor -or- OSS -koh-pee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluoroscope </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( his -ter-oh- sal -ping- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray assessment of uterus and fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures </li></ul></ul>Hysterosalpingography
  26. 26. Lymphangiography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(lim- fan -jee- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray assessment of lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into lymph vessels in the hand or foot </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(mag- NET -ik REZ -oh-nans IM -ij-ing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Mammography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(mam- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of taking X-rays of the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Myelography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(my-eh- LOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through X-ray examination </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET) <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( POZ -ih-tron ee- MISH -un toh- MOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninvasive diagnostic imaging method that demonstrates the biological function of the body before anatomical changes take place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scan produces computerized radiographic images of the body structures when radioactive substances are administered to the patient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substances are inhaled or injected </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(pye-eh -LOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(in-trah- VEE -nus) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as intravenous pyelogram or excretory urogram </li></ul></ul></ul>Pyelography (Intravenous) (IVP)
  32. 32. Radiation Therapy <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(ray-dee- AY -shun THAIR -ah-pee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of ionizing radiation to accomplish one or more of the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of tumor cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of tumor size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relief of obstruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To slow or stop the spread of cancer cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Radiation Therapy <ul><li>Radiation therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys rapidly multiplying cells regardless of whether they are cancerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to reach maximum tumor control with no, or minimal, normal tissue damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be delivered by teletherapy (external) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be delivered by brachytherapy (internal) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Radioactive Iodine Uptake <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( ray -dee-oh- AK -tiv EYE -oh-dine UP -tayk) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Image of the thyroid is recorded and visualized after a radioactive substance is given </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( SCAN -ing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning is the process of recording emission of radioactive waves, using a gamma camera (scanner) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After an intravenous injection of a radionuclide material into the particular part of the body being studied </li></ul></ul></ul>Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs)
  36. 36. <ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image of the area being studied is displayed by recording concentration or collection of a radioactive substance specifically drawn to that area </li></ul></ul>Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs)
  37. 37. Scanning <ul><li>Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves intravenous injection of a radionuclide material absorbed by bone tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to detect spread of cancer to the bones, osteomyelitis, and other destructive changes in the bones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Scanning <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear scanning of cranial contents two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful in diagnosing abnormal findings such as an acute cerebral infarction, cerebral neoplasm, cerebral hemorrhage, brain abscess, aneurysms, cerebral thrombosis, hematomas, hydrocephalus, cancer metastasis to the brain, and bleeds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Scanning <ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the liver after the IV injection of a radioactive compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful in detecting cysts, abscesses, tumors, granulomas, or diffuse infiltrative processes affecting the liver </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Scanning <ul><li>Lung </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Scanning <ul><li>Spleen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the spleen after injection of radioactive red blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful in detecting damage, tumors, and other problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(single FOH -ton ee- MISH -un </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kom- PEW -ted toh- MOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear imaging procedure that shows how blood flows to tissues and organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking of radioactive material allows physician to see perfusion of blood to tissues and organs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Small Bowel Follow-Through <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Small Bowel Follow-Through) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to observe progression of barium through small intestines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Tomography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(toh- MOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray technique used to construct a detailed cross-section, at a predetermined depth, of a tissue structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful in identifying space-occupying lesions in the liver, brain, pancreas, and gallbladder </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(ull-trah-son- OG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient’s skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sound waves are reflected back into the transducer and are interpreted by a computer that converts waves to a composite picture form </li></ul></ul></ul>Ultrasonography (Ultrasound)
  46. 46. Ultrasonography <ul><li>Abdominal ultrasound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of reflected sound waves to provide reliable visualization of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Ultrasonography <ul><li>Pelvic ultrasound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to locate a pelvic mass, an ectopic pregnancy, or an intrauterine device, and to inspect and assess the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Renal ultrasound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninvasive ultrasound of the kidneys that is useful in distinguishing between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, detecting renal calculi, identifying obstructions, and evaluating transplanted kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thyroid Echogram (ultrasound) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules </li></ul></ul>Ultrasonography
  49. 49. Venography <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(vee- NOG -rah-fee) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique used to prepare an X-ray image of veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins are injected with a radiopaque contrast medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phlebography </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. X-rays <ul><li>Pronounced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( ECKS -rays) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of high-energy electromagnetic waves, passing through the body onto a photographic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. X-rays <ul><li>Chest X-ray </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualization of interior of chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides diagnostic information about: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tumors, inflammation, accumulation of fluid, accumulation of air, bone fractures, diaphragmatic hernia, size of heart, calcification, placement of centrally located intravenous access devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Chest X-ray views </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posteroanterior (PA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays pass through the posterior (back) to the anterior (front) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays pass through the person’s side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oblique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays are taken from different angles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decubitus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays are taken with person in recumbent lateral position – aids in localizing fluid </li></ul></ul></ul>X-rays