Who Is An Indian


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American Indian Notes

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Who Is An Indian

  1. 1. Who is an Indian ? <ul><ul><li>No single federal or tribal criterion establishes a person’s identity as an Indian. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be eligible for Bureau of Indian Affairs (1 of 3 things) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Be a member of tribe recognized by federal gov’t </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Be one-half or more Indian blood of tribes from US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Be of ¼ or more Indian ancestry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natives have been citizens since 1924, meaning they can vote and hold office. </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. What is a reservation? <ul><ul><li>Land a tribe reserved for itself when it relinquished its other land area to the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest = Navajo Reservation (16 million acres) in Arizona, NM, and Utah </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Laws <ul><ul><li>Natives are subject to local, state, and federal laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On reservations only federal and tribal laws apply </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gaming Regulation <ul><ul><li>Indian land is not under State law unless a federal law places it under state law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1988 – Indian Gaming Regulatory Act – allowed traditional Indian gaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However – it requires a Tribal/State compact for other forms of gaming </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Treaties are no longer made with tribes <ul><ul><li>Now the government uses Congressional acts, executive orders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1887 – end of allotment Act – take communal lands – divide into parcels and each person gets own parcel to own. Extra or left over land are considered surplus and are sold off to other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust Land – Federal government would hold title and Indian couldn’t do anything with it without permission of government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only supposed to last 25 years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian landowner wouldn’t have to pay taxes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government still sold away land against Act </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Treaties are no longer made with tribes cont’d. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allotment is failure – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1934 – Indian New Deal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sets up sovereignty to govern own tribes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust lands extended indefinitely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land in trust is not bound to state laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shakopee – tribe bought land next to reservation – impact on Scott county – takes land off property revenue and brings stress to services and roadways </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Tribal Government <ul><ul><li>Tribal governments are organized democratically with an elected leadership referred to as the council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader of council and chairman work directly with Secretary of the Interior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribal governments define membership, regulate domestic relations, prescribe rules of inheritance, levy taxes, regulate property under tribal jurisdiction and administer justice </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Native Americans <ul><ul><li>Can include more than just Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The preferred term is American Indian </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Population and numbers <ul><ul><li>There are 2 million American Indians living in America today and 575 federally recognized tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicide rate for 15-24 Indians is more than twice that of any other American or ethnic group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homicide is the second leading cause of death among Indians 14 and younger and the third leading cause of death for Indians 15-24 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Structures <ul><ul><li>Tribes are sovereign nations and have the right to form and maintain tribal governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes have written constitutions with elected leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each form of government operates through a set of laws and codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powers of Indian Tribes include (Sovereignty): </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish form of government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determining membership </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to police </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to administer justice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to exclude people from the reservation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to charter business organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Laws and Enforcement <ul><ul><li>Tribal government have the power to make and enforce laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribes have courts, police force, and security facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can tax its members and others that use their land such as private companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians lands are not state’s land – instead the land is held in trust by the federal government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States cannot tax the reservations or its people </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Tribal-Federal Relationship <ul><ul><li>US recognizes Indian tribes as separate nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress has authorized the Secretary of Interior to oversee Indian trust lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau of Indian Affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interacts with tribal governments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers services to the tribes with were negotiated with the tribes through treaties and agreements </li></ul></ul></ul>