Mendel and his peas


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Mendel and his peas

  1. 1. History of Genetics During the 1860’s, an Austrian monk and teacher named Gregor Mendel experimented with pea plants to see if he could find a pattern in the way certain traits are handed down from one generation to the next generation.
  2. 2.  The passing of genetic traits from parents to offspring is called heredity . From working with plants, Mendel knew that sometimes a trait in one generation (parents) would not appear in the next generation (offspring ). Then the trait would show up in the next generation.
  3. 3.  Pea plants were a good choice to study for these reasons: (1) grow quickly (2) many different kinds available (3) able to self- pollinate
  4. 4.  A self-pollinating plant has both male and female reproductive structures In cross-pollination, pollen from one plant fertilizes the ovule of a flower on a different plant. Mendel only studied one characteristic at a time, such as flower color .
  5. 5. Mendel’s First Experiments Mendel crossed purple flowers with white flowers. The offspring from this cross is called first- generation plants (F1). All were purple —Where did the white flower trait go???
  6. 6.  Dominant trait= the trait observed in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred Recessive trait= a trait that reappears in a second generation after disappearing in the first generation when parents with different traits are bred
  7. 7.  Mendel’s Second Experiments Mendel allowed first- generation plants to self-pollinate . The recessive trait for white flowers reappeared in the second generation.
  8. 8. Gone, but Not Forgotten Mendel realized that his results proved that each plant has two sets of instructions for each trait . Each parent would then donate one set of instructions. Mendel’s work wasn’t widely recognized until after his death, more than 30 years later.
  9. 9. A Great Idea Mendel knew from his experiments that there must be two sets of instructions for each characteristic scientists now call these instructions for an inherited traits “ genes” Each parent gives one set of genes to the offspring —the different forms of a gene are known as alleles , like hair color Dominant alleles are shown with a capital letter Recessive alleles are shown with a lowercase letter
  10. 10. Phenotype & Genotype Organism’s appearance is known as its phenotype – Examples: hair color, eye color, widow’s peak, etc.
  11. 11.  Both inherited alleles together form an organism’s genotype – homozygousorganism with two dominant or two recessive alleles, like RR or rr for flower color – Heterozygous organism that has one dominant and one recessive allele, like Rr for flower color
  12. 12. Label each genotype as “HOM” forhomozygous or “HET” for heterozygous Hh: ____ AA: ____ ww: ____ Gg: ____ Ff: _____ SS: ____