How arecheese, bread,and soy saucerelated tofungi?A fungus canhelp makeeach of thesefoods!
Fungi (singular form is fungus)are everywhereMushrooms on pizza are a typeof fungusYeast used to make bread is afungus
If you’ve ever had athlete’s foot,you can thank a fungus for that, too!
Characteristics of FungiFungi: eukaryotic heterotrophs thathave rigid cell walls and nochlorophyllFood for Fungi– Cannot catch or surround food– Must live on or near food supply– Most are consumers—get nutrients by secreting digestive juices onto a food source and then absorbing dissolved food
– Many are decomposers— feed on dead plant or animal matter– Some fungi live in mutualism with other organisms Example: many types of fungi grow on or in roots of plants and help the roots absorb minerals while the plant provides nutrients to the fungus This relationship between a plant and a fungus is called a mycorrihiza
Hidden From View– Many-celled fungi are made up of chains of cells called hyphae– Hyphae: threadlike fungal filaments that are made up of cells that have openings in their cell walls These openings allow cytoplasm to move freely between the cells– Most of the hyphae that make up a fungus grow together to form a twisted mass called the mycelium
Making More Fungi– Reproduction is asexual or sexual– ASEXUAL: occurs in 2 ways: (1) hyphae break apart and each new piece makes a new fungus or (2) spores spread by wind and grow where they land– SEXUAL: special structures form sex cells and join to produce sexual sporesthat grow into a new fungus
This puffball is releasing sexual spores that can produce new fungi.
Kinds of FungiFungi classified based onshape and the way thatthey reproduceFour main groups offungi:– (1) threadlike fungi– (2) sac fungi– (3) club fungi– (4) imperfect fungi
Threadlike Fungi – Mold: a fungus that looks like wool or cotton – Most of these fungi live in the soil and are decomposers – Some are parasites – Reproduce asexually—hyphae grow into the air and form round spore cases (sporangia), which break open and release spores into air
YEASTSac Fungi– Largest group of fungi– Includes yeast, powdery mildews, truffles, and morels– Reproduce sexually and asexually during their life cycles (when sexually, they form sac called ascus) MORELS
Side Note on TrufflesTruffles are difficult to findand very expensive as aresult! In 1994, blacktruffles sold for $350 to$500 a pound. In the UnitedStates, edible truffles arecollected in the forests ofOregon and Washington. InEurope, most truffles arecollected in France and Italy.Truffle hunters in Italy andFrance use pigs and mixed-breed dogs to sniff outtruffles. Dogs are preferredto pigs because pigs love toeat truffles. Notice the staffheld by the truffle hunter inthe picture with the pig. Thehunter uses the staff toforce the pig to back off,once the pig has located atruffle
-Yeast are single celled and reproduce by budding
–yeast used to make bread and alcohol yeasts use sugar as food and produce carbon dioxide gas and alcohol as waste. Trapped bubbles of CO2 cause bread dough to rise.– Useful to humans– Other sac fungi are sources of antibiotics and vitamins
Club Fungi – Umbrella-shaped and most familiar – Example: mushrooms – Reproduce sexually— special hyphae grow clublike structures called basidia, where spores develop – In gill fungi, the basidia of these mushrooms develop into structures called gills, under the mushroom cap
– Mushrooms usually grow at the edges of the mass of hyphae underground—this is why mushrooms often appear in circles– A ring of mushrooms can appear overnight. In European folk legends, these were known as “fairy rings”
BRACKET FUNGINonmushroom Fungi– Mushrooms are not the only club fungi– Also includes: bracket fungi, puffballs, smuts, and rusts– Smuts and rusts are common plant parasites CORN SMUT
Imperfect Fungi – Includes all of the species of fungi that do not quite fit into other groups – Do not reproduce sexually – Most are parasites that cause diseases in plants and animals – Example: athlete’s foot (a skin disease)
– Some are useful penicillum, which is the source of antibiotic penicillin
Lichens – Combinations of a fungus and an alga that grow together – Alga actually lives inside the protective walls of the fungus – Result of mutualistic relationship BRITISH SOLDIER LICHEN CHRISTMAS LICHEN
–Unlike fungi, lichens are producers—algae in lichen produce food through photosynthesis–Because lichens need only light, air, and minerals to grow, they can grow on rocks–Lichens make acids that break down rocks and cause cracks–Lichens absorb water and minerals from air easily affected by air pollution