Kinds of Behavior • How do animals know when a situation is dangerous? How do theyknow where to find food? • Sometimes, animalsinstinctively know how tobehave, but sometimes they
Innate Behavior• Innate behavior: behavior that doesn’t depend on learning or experience• Inherited through genes• Examples: puppies inherit the tendency to chew, bees inherit the tendency to fly – Other innate behaviors develop months or years after birth walking is innate humans, but we don’t do it for at least a year after birth
• The male bowerbird inherits thetendency to collect colorful objects for its nest. These colorful additions attract the female bowerbird to be his mate!
Learned Behavior• Innate behaviors can be modified• Animals can use learning to change a behavior• Learned behavior: behavior that has been learned from experience or from observing other animals• Humans inherit the tendency to speak, but the language we use is not inherited• All animals can learn
Survival Behavior • Finding FoodMany animals hunt for their food, This chimpanzee uses tools to get like this owl hunting mice to the insect for food
– Animals that eat other animals are known as predators– The animal being eaten is the prey– Example A frog eats insects, so the frog is a predator. But a frog may be eaten by a snake. In this case, the frog is the prey.
• Marking Territory – Members of the same species must compete for food and mates – Some animals claim territories to save energy by avoiding this competition – Territory an area that is occupied by one animal or a group of animals that do not allow other members of the same species to enter – Animals use their territories for mating, raising young, and finding food
• Defensive Action – Defensive behavior allows animals to protect resources, including territories, from other animals – Animals defend food, mates, and offspring – Also helps animals protect themselves from predators, such as making themselves hard to see • Example: This rabbit “freezes” so that its color blends into the background
Pet dogs When a predator is near,sometimes growl a mother killdeer may when a person pretend to have aapproaches while broken wing and move its eating away from her young as a distraction
• Courtship – Animals need to find mates to reproduce – Animals have special behaviors that help them find a mate; these behaviors are referred to as “courtship” – Example: two cranes perform a courtship display dance
• Parenting – Some animals, like caterpillars, start life being able to take care of themselves – Many young depend on their parents for survival – Some adult birds bring food to their young because they cannot feed themselves – Other animals, like the killer whale, spend years teaching their young how to hunt for food
Seasonal Behavior• Migration – Many animals avoid cold weather by traveling to warmer places – For short trips, animals use landmarks to find their way (landmarks are fixed, like mountain ranges, rivers, and coast lines)
Each winter, monarchbutterflies migrate from NorthAmerica to central Mexico. Therecan be as many as 4 million butterflies per acre!
• Slowing Down – Some animals deal with food and water shortages by hibernating – Hibernation: period of inactivity and decreased body temperature that some animals experience in winter – Winter is not the only time for hibernation many desert squirrels and mice experience a similar internal slowdown in the hottest parts of summer, when food and water are scarce. • This is called “estivation”
• A Biological Clock – Animals need to keep track of time so that they know when to store food and when to migrate – The internal control of an animal’s natural cycles is called a biological clock – Animals use clues such as the length of the day and the temperature – Circadian rhythms: daily cycles, such as an animal waking up and getting sleepy at about the same time each day and night
Social Relationships• Social behavior: the interaction among animals of the same species; animals depend on communication for their social interactions
– Animals also communicate to find food, to warn others of danger, to identify family members, to frighten predators, and to find mates
• Ways to Communicate – Sound • Sound is a signal that can reach many animals over a large area • Elephants use low frequency rumbles to communicate with other elephants that are kilometers away
– Touch • Chimpanzees often groom each other • This activity is an important way for primates to communicate, calm and comfort each other, and communicate friendship or support
– Chemicals • Pheromones: chemicals that animals use to communicate • Ants and other insects secrete a variety of pheromones alarm chemicals warn other ants of danger and recognition chemicals announce which colony an ant is from to both friends and enemies • Many animals use pheromones to find a mate
– Sight • When we smile at a friend, we are sending a visual message with body language • Bees use body language to spread news about food (the “waggle dance”) • An animal that wants to scare another animal may ruffle feathers or show its teeth
Living Together• The Benefits of Living in Groups – Safer than living alone – One animal can warn many others of danger – Helps animals find food – Predators that hunt in groups can kill larger preyThe ground squirrel whistles a loud alarm if there’s danger
• The Downside of Living in Groups – Must compete with each other for food and mates – An area that has enough food for one animal may not have enough food for a group of animals – In these cases, groups must move around in search of food – Animals in groups attract predators – Living as a group can also help diseases spread