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Napoleon, in brief


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Napoleon, in brief

  1. 1. Napoleon<br />1795-1815<br />
  2. 2. Rise to Power<br />Minor Corsican Nobility<br />Intelligent, Military Talent<br />Military and Technical Eduation<br />Enlightenment Values: Jacobin partisan<br />Rose Rapidly in Revolutionary Army<br />Politically Astute<br />puts down Royalists in 1795, 1797<br />
  3. 3. First Consulate<br />Napoleon removes Director AbbéSiéyès and establishes the Constitution of the Year VIII<br />Universal Male Suffrage, <br />First Consul (Napoleon) in full authority<br />Napoleon-appointed Senate, confirming legislation suggested by Napoleon-appointed Council of State. <br />Secret Police, Censorship (60 of 73 newspapers shut down), arrest and execution of royalists<br />Concordat with Roman Catholic Church, Organic Articles legalize Protestantism, Judaism<br />
  4. 4. 1804 Napoleonic Code<br />Public trials, juries, basic freedoms of Revolution, etc.<br />Eliminates feudal privileges, serfdom, guilds, Church authority<br />renews Revolutionary prohibition on worker organizations and guilds<br />women 2nd class citizens:<br />primacy of father over children and husband over wife<br />Women’s property controlled by husbands<br />divorce difficult; code eliminates exceptions and customary escapes<br />But mandates distribution of inheritance among all children<br />Code Napoleon spreads with conquests<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Napoleonic Wars<br />Military Innovations<br />Strategic use of Artillery<br />Napoleonic Columns<br />Mass Military<br />General Staff System<br />Operational Independence<br />Hinge<br />“An Army Travels On Its Stomach”<br />
  7. 7. Napoleonic Empire<br />
  8. 8. Napoleon’s Weaknesses<br />Need for Total Control: Pride? Fear of Weakness? Accident of History?<br />Exhaustion<br />Avoidance<br />England: Navy<br />Spain: guerrilla<br />Russia: Scorched Earth<br />
  9. 9. Charles Joseph Minard, 1861<br />
  10. 10. Napoleon’s Defeats<br />Austerlitz, Waterloo<br />Exiled to St. Helena, Elba<br />Congress of Vienna<br />Preventing Another Napoleon<br />France returned to 1792 Borders<br />Monarchy Legitimized<br />Commitment to Stability<br />Treaties Binding on States, not leaders<br />
  11. 11. Napoleon’s Legacies<br />Stabilization of Revolution<br />Napoleonic Code<br />Sale of Louisiana Territory to United States<br />Congress of Vienna and Balance of Power system<br />Reactive Nationalism<br />
  12. 12. <ul><li>Minard Map from Wikipedia image collection
  13. 13. Strayer Map from Ways of the World
  14. 14. Paintings of Napoleon from
  15. 15. For Full Chronology, see</li>