19c European political and intellectual history

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A brief survey of 19th century European intellectual and political history, primarily focusing on political ideologies stemming from the Enlightenment and French Revolution.

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19c European political and intellectual history

  1. 1. 19th Century Thought Politics, Social Theory and Science
  2. 2. Enlightenment Legacies • Romantic Movement – Emotionalism, Primitivism – Literature, Art, Politics • Economic Liberalism – Adam Smith – John Ricardo's Iron Law of Wages – Thomas Malthus and Population • Positivism
  3. 3. Positivism and Science • Auguste Comte • Emile Durkheim • Chemistry and Medicine • Darwin & Evolutionary Thought – "Social Darwinism" and other alternative evolutionary theories
  4. 4. Liberalism • Utilitarianism – The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number – Jeremy Bentham: Corn Laws, Workhouses – John Mill • John Stuart Mill – On Liberty, 1859 – The Subjection of Women, 1869 • Democratization – Suffrage and Women’s Suffrage
  5. 5. Echoes of Revolution • Conservativism • Nationalism • Socialisms
  6. 6. Conservativism • Edmund Burke – Gradualism and Incrementalism – Family, Property – Monarchy, Religion
  7. 7. Nationalism • Reactive, definition in the face of diversity • Unity: Place, Language, Religion, Culture, History, Destiny • Nationalist Unification Movements: – Germany, Italy • Nationalist Liberation Movements: – Greece, Serbia • Romantic Nationalism: – Herder and Grimm Brothers
  8. 8. Socialisms • Utopian Socialists – Charles Fourier, Robert Owen • Social Organization – Saint-Simon – Chartists and Labor Unions • Marx and Communism – Hegelian Idealism --> Historical Materialism – Proletariat v. Bourgeoisie
  9. 9. Abolitionism • Religious Anti-slavery: Quakers • Enlightenment writers ambivalent • US Revolution and Constitution: debated • French Revolution: Haitian independence • Oluadah Equiano and growing British movement • 1808 British ban on Atlantic trade • 1833 UK Slavery Abolition Act • US Civil War
  10. 10. Radicals and Combinations • Anarchism – Romantic Optimism – Leftist Criticism – Violence • Christian Socialists • Liberal and Conservative Nationalisms – Anti-Semitism and Zionism

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