Hastily Assembled Lecture Notes on Terrorism and Chechnya
Terrorism and ChechnyaA Quickly Created LectureOutline
Modern Terrorism• Difference between– violent criminal act– guerrilla warfare– terrorism• Modern Technologies– handgun– bomb
Early Terrorism• Anarchists– Political Assassination• 1881: Russian Tsar Alexander II• 1894: French President Carnot• 1901: US President McKinley• 1911: Great Treason Plot to kill JapaneseEmperor Meiji– Bombings• 1886 Haymarket Bombing• 1894: Greenwich Observatory• 1919-20: Bombings in US• etc.
Ideology of TerrorismAnarchist/Nationalist• "Propaganda of the Deed"• Instability of oppressive structures– Provoking state into oppressive action• Education of "slumbering" masses• Romantic authenticityLater Strategies• Raising costs/Exhausting the enemy• Revenge/Retaliation
History of Chechnya• Relevance? Known suspects havelived in US for 10+ years, never lived inChechnya, according to relatives.• Ethnic Chechens live in wide areaincluding former Soviet Republics,Turkey, Russia• Chechens arent the only minorityethnic group in Chechnya
Chechen History• Resisted Mongols, largely independentmulti-ethnic Muslim society until 19thcentury.• Russian expansion south underCatherine, etc., puts Cossacks inChechen territory, leads to conflicts.• Ottoman-Russian conflict makes thisterritory important.• Determined Russianoccupation, conquest in mid-19thcentury
Chechen History• Rising Chechen nationalism againstRussian control, ongoing guerrillawarfare through 19th century, as wellas well-organized uprisings• Mass expulsion in late 19th centurydrives many Chechens south intoOttoman territory• Russian Revolution seen asopportunity: communism as allyagainst Cossack/White Russians
Chechen History• Soviet system still seen as oppressive.In WWII, Chechen nationalists ally withGermany in hopes of gainingindependence.• After German retreat, Stalin punishesChechens with mass "relocation",resulting in widespread death and exile• After 1957, Chechens allowed freemovement again.
Chechen History• 1991 Fall of Soviet Union seen asopportunity for Chechen independence,but Russia refuses to let oil resources go• Independence movement establishesgovernment, military. Russia invades in1994• Guerrilla warfare and terroristresistance, connections to Muslimparamilitary groups• ethnic cleansing.
Chechen History• Chechen terrorism, internationalpressure, actually succeed in forcingRussia to negotiate: cease-fire in late90s.• Chechen terrorism (possibly withsupport of Russian secret police) givesRussia opportunity to re-invade.• Ongoing Chechen insurgency, terroristattacks in Moscow, elsewhere.
Chechen War in US?• US is not strongly tied to either side inChechen war, but some Chechensblame US for not pushing Russiaharder• What we know so far suggests highlyassimilated immigrants.• Possible influence from Islamicteachers who believe in Central Asia assource of Islamic renewal, army.