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Fascism, Adolf Hitler, National Socialism and the Holocaust


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A discussion of the key ideas of Mussolini, Hitler and the National Socialists, focusing on the relatively mainstream roots - nationalism, fascism, racial theory - and the implementation of these ideas as policy targetting the Jews and other non-Aryan peoples.

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Fascism, Adolf Hitler, National Socialism and the Holocaust

  1. 1. Fascism, Adolf Hitler,National Socialism, Genocide
  2. 2. FascismFascism, now and always, believes in holiness and inheroism; that is to say, in actions influenced by noeconomic motive, direct or indirect. ... And above allFascism denies that class-war can be the preponderantforce in the transformation of society....Fascism denies that the majority, by the simple fact thatit is a majority, can direct human society; it denies thatnumbers alone can govern by means of a periodicalconsultation, and it affirms the immutable, beneficial,and fruitful inequality of mankind, which can never bepermanently leveled through the mere operation of amechanical process such as universal suffrage....
  3. 3. Fascism, cont.The foundation of Fascism is the conception of theState, its character, its duty, and its aim. Fascismconceives of the State as an absolute, incomparison with which all individuals or groupsare relative, only to be conceived of in their relationto the State...the Fascist State is itself consciousand has itself a will and a personalityThe Fascist State organizes the nation, but leaves asufficient margin of liberty to the individual; the latteris deprived of all useless and possibly harmfulfreedom, but retains what is essential; the decidingpower in this question cannot be the individual, butthe State alone....
  4. 4. Fascism, cont.For Fascism, the growth of empire, that is tosay the expansion of the nation, is an essentialmanifestation of vitality, and its opposite a signof decadence. Peoples which are rising, or risingagain after a period of decadence, are alwaysimperialist; and renunciation is a sign of decay andof death. Fascism is the doctrine best adapted torepresent the tendencies and the aspirations of apeople, like the people of Italy, who are risingagain after many centuries of abasement andforeign servitude.
  5. 5. Fascism, cont.But empire demands discipline, the coordinationof all forces and a deeply felt sense of duty andsacrifice: this fact explains many aspects of thepractical working of the regime, the character of manyforces in the State, and the necessarily severemeasures which must be taken against those whowould oppose this spontaneous and inevitablemovement of Italy in the twentieth century, and wouldoppose it by recalling the outworn ideology of thenineteenth century - repudiated wheresoever therehas been the courage to undertake great experimentsof social and political transformation; for neverbefore has the nation stood more in need of
  6. 6. Nazism And Existing Ideas• Nationalism• Racialism• Industrialization• Imperialism• Fascism• Modern Bureaucratic State
  7. 7. Vocabulary• Aryan• Fuhrer• Lebensraum• Untermenschen• Judenrein
  8. 8. NSDAP Platform, 19201. We demand the unification of all Germans in theGreater Germany on the basis of the right of self-determination of peoples.2. We demand equality of rights for the Germanpeople in respect to the other nations; abrogation ofthe peace treaties of Versailles and St. Germain.3. We demand land and territory (colonies) for thesustenance of our people, and colonization forour surplus population.4. Only a member of the race can be a citizen. Amember of the race can only be one who is ofGerman blood, without consideration of creed.Consequently no Jew can be a member of the
  9. 9. 5. Whoever has no citizenship is to be able to live inGermany only as a guest, and must be under theauthority of legislation for foreigners.6. The right to determine matters concerningadministration and law belongs only to the citizen.Therefore we demand that every public office, of anysort whatsoever, whether in the Reich, the countyor municipality, be filled only by citizens. Wecombat the corrupting parliamentary economy, office-holding only according to party inclinations withoutconsideration of character or abilities.
  10. 10. 7. We demand that the state be charged first withproviding the opportunity for a livelihood and wayof life for the citizens. If it is impossible tosustain the total population of the State, thenthe members of foreign nations (non-citizens)are to be expelled from the Reich.8. Any further immigration of non-citizens is to beprevented. We demand that all non-Germans,who have immigrated to Germany since the 2August 1914, be forced immediately to leavethe Reich.9. All citizens must have equal rights andobligations.
  11. 11. 10. The first obligation of every citizen must be towork both spiritually and physically. The activityof individuals is not to counteract theinterests of the universality, but must have itsresult within the framework of the whole forthe benefit of all. Consequently we demand:11. Abolition of unearned (work and labour)incomes. Breaking of rent-slavery.12. In consideration of the monstrous sacrifice inproperty and blood that each war demands of thepeople personal enrichment through a war mustbe designated as a crime against the people.Therefore we demand the total confiscation ofall war profits.
  12. 12. 13. We demand the nationalization of all (previous)associated industries (trusts).14. We demand a division of profits of all heavyindustries.15. We demand an expansion on a large scale ofold age welfare.16. We demand the creation of a healthy middleclass and its conservation, immediatecommunalization of the great warehouses and theirbeing leased at low cost to small firms, the utmostconsideration of all small firms in contracts withthe State, county or municipality.
  13. 13. 17. We demand a land reform suitable to ourneeds, provision of a law for the free expropriation ofland for the purposes of public utility, abolition oftaxes on land and prevention of all speculation inland.18. We demand struggle without considerationagainst those whose activity is injurious to thegeneral interest. Common national criminals,usurers, Schieber and so forth are to bepunished with death, without consideration ofconfession or race.19. We demand substitution of a German commonlaw in place of the Roman Law serving amaterialistic world-order.
  14. 14. 20. The state is to be responsible for afundamental reconstruction of our whole nationaleducation program, to enable every capable andindustrious German to obtain higher educationand subsequently introduction into leadingpositions. The plans of instruction of alleducational institutions are to conform with theexperiences of practical life. The comprehensionof the concept of the State must be striven for bythe school [Staatsbuergerkunde] as early as thebeginning of understanding. We demand theeducation at the expense of the State ofoutstanding intellectually gifted children of poorparents without consideration of position or
  15. 15. 21. The State is to care for the elevating nationalhealth by protecting the mother and child, byoutlawing child-labor, by the encouragement ofphysical fitness, by means of the legalestablishment of a gymnastic and sport obligation,by the utmost support of all organizationsconcerned with the physical instruction of theyoung.22. We demand abolition of the mercenary troopsand formation of a national army.
  16. 16. 23. We demand legal opposition to known lies and theirpromulgation through the press. In order to enable theprovision of a German press, we demand, that: a. All writersand employees of the newspapers appearing in theGerman language be members of the race; b. Non-Germannewspapers be required to have the express permission of theState to be published. They may not be printed in the Germanlanguage; c. Non-Germans are forbidden by law any financialinterest in German publications, or any influence on them, andas punishment for violations the closing of such a publicationas well as the immediate expulsion from the Reich of the non-German concerned.Publications which are counter to the general good are to beforbidden. We demand legal prosecution of artistic andliterary forms which exert a destructive influence on ournational life, and the closure of organizations opposing theabove made demands.
  17. 17. 24. We demand freedom of religion for allreligious denominations within the state solong as they do not endanger its existence oroppose the moral senses of the Germanic race.The Party as such advocates the standpoint of apositive Christianity without binding itselfconfessionally to any one denomination. Itcombats the Jewish-materialistic spirit withinand around us, and is convinced that a lastingrecovery of our nation can only succeed fromwithin on the framework: common utilityprecedes individual utility.
  18. 18. 25. For the execution of all of this we demand theformation of a strong central power in theReich. Unlimited authority of the centralparliament over the whole Reich and itsorganizations in general. The forming of state andprofession chambers for the execution of the lawsmade by the Reich within the various states of theconfederation. The leaders of the Party promise, ifnecessary by sacrificing their own lives, to supportby the execution of the points set forth abovewithout consideration.
  19. 19. Independence Kansas Daily,July 1933Meanwhile, the convention of the AmericanZionist organization got underway Sunday withthe 3,500 delegates pledging $8,000,000 toGerman Jewish refugees for colonization ofPalestine."The plea for financial aid was voiced by RabbiStephen S. Wise, of New York, when he calledthe convention "the first important meeting ofAmerican Zionists since the Hitler catastrophehit Germany."Rabbi Wise demanded a two-fold answer toHitler, the first to be uttered by the judgement ofmankind out of the conscience of Christendom,and the second, to create, develop and maintainthe Jewish national home in Palestine."The Jew is always ready to die for his country,"said Dr. Wise, "but he is not ready to die at thehands of his country."
  20. 20. Moving Against Jews• 1933: Jews excluded from Civil Service, Eugenics law.• 1935: Nuremberg Laws remove citizenship from Jews, bar intermarriage• 1938: November 9-10, Kristallnacht. Jews barred from owning businesses• 1939: War begins. – Jewish bank accounts, property confiscated – Identifying papers and clothing in some areas – Jewish relocation, concentration, elimination – "Aktion T-4" Euthanasia programs• 1941: "Final Solution" programs implemented. All
  21. 21. "Camps"GhettosConcentrationCampsShow CampsLabor CampsDeath Camps
  22. 22. Partial Accounting of Victims• Jews: approx. 5.7M, 2/3 of Jews in Europe• Romany (aka Gypsies): 150K-.5M; almost 90% eradicated in occupied areas• Polish intellectuals; religious leadership; political and labor leaders, others: approx 2M• Russian POWs and civilians: millions• Germans: Disabled, Homosexuals (at least those not in the SS), Catholics, some Protestants, Jehovahs Witnesses, Freemasons, Communists, Socialists
  23. 23. Sources• What is Fascism, Mussolini & Gentile, 1932 – fascism.html• NSDAP Platform –• Chronology of the Holocaust – ce/pdf/chronology.pdf• "Jews of nation in convention" (AP), Daily, Independence, Kansas, 3 July 1933 –• Background: Rose, by Jonathan Dresner