SPE 165151Gunnar Olsvik and Siv Howard, Cabot Specialty FluidsJohn Downs, Formate Brine LtdSPE European Formation Damage c...
Formate brinesSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013 2SodiumformatePotassiumformateCesiumformateSolubilit...
Formate brines for HPHT gas wellsLow-solids heavy fluids for deep HPHT gas wellconstructions – facilitating open hole comp...
HPHT wells - What can go wrong when you try running openhole screen completions in conventional heavy mud ?Example 1Produc...
Example 2Production from 4 HPHT screen wells, accessing 40 billion m3 ofgas (i.e. 50% of gas reserves in place), is plugge...
42 deep HPHT gas fields developed using formatebrines, 1995-2011* (published data)Country Fields Reservoir DescriptionMatr...
The economic benefits of using formate brines inHPHT gas field developments – Reference papers• SPE 130376 (2010): “A Revi...
Formate brines – The economic benefitsprovided in HPHT gas field developmentsFormate brines tend to improve oil and gas fi...
Several highlights from some Kvitebjoern HPHT gaswells drilled and completed with formatesKvitebjoernwellCompletiontime(da...
But productive for how long ?Question : Do HPHT gas fields developed using formatebrines deliver all of their recoverable ...
Reviewed long-term production from 8 North SeaHPHT gas condensate fields in 3 categories11SPE European Formation Damage co...
Tune field – semi-HP/HT gas condensate reservoirdrilled and completed with formate brines, 2002124 wells : 350-900 m horiz...
Tune wells - Initial Clean-up – Operator’s view(direct copy of slide) June 2003SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5...
Tune – Production of recoverable gas and condensatereserves since 2003 (NPD data)14Good early production from the 4 wells-...
• 6 production wells• 1-2 Darcy sandstone• BHST: 147oC• TVD : 3,900 m• Hole angle : 45-55o• Fluid density: SG1.89-1.96• 23...
Huldra – Production of recoverable gas andcondensate reserves since Nov 2001 (NPD data)16Plateau production from first 3 w...
• 13 wells to date – 8 O/B, 5 in MPD mode• 100 mD sandstone• BHST: 155oC• TVD : 4,000 m• Hole angle : 20-40o• Fluid densit...
Kvitebjørn– Production of recoverable gas andcondensate reserves since Oct 2004 (NPD data)18Good production reported from ...
Formate brines have been used to complete all ofthe cased wells in 5 HPHT fields in UK North SeaAll wells drilled with OBM...
Fluid losses from HPHT wells in UK North Seaperforated in overbalance in formate brines20SPE European Formation Damage con...
Braemar field – Production of recoverable gas andcondensate reserves since September 2003 (DECC data)21Estimated (2003) re...
Glenelg – Production of gas and condensate sinceMarch 2006 (DECC data)25No published reserves information ? Similar to Bra...
BP Rhum field – largest undeveloped gas fieldin UK in 2005SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013 2345 mD ...
Rhum field – Production of recoverable gas reserves:December 2005- October 2010 (DECC data)23After nearly 5 years the 3 Rh...
Jura – Production of gas and condensate since May2008 (DECC data)24Estimated (2008) proved and probable reserves of 170 mi...
West Franklin – Production of gas and condensatefrom West Franklin/Franklin 2001-11 (DECC data)26No published reserves inf...
Conclusions – Cat 1 HPHT wells - Drilled andcompleted in high-angle open hole with formate brinesTune and Huldra fields pr...
Conclusions – Cat 2 HPHT wells - Drilled andcompleted in open- and cased-hole with formate brinesKvitebjørn field has prod...
Conclusions – Cat 3 HPHT wells - drilled with OBM andcompleted in cased-hole with formate brines (no pill)Braemar and Glen...
Conclusions – Cat 3 HPHT wells - drilled with OBM andcompleted in cased-hole with formate brines+ kill pillRhum, Jura and ...
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SPE 165151 The Long-Term Production Performance of Deep HPHT Gas Condensate Fields Developed Using Formate Brines

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Maps and analyses the long-term production of eight HPHT gas and condensate fields in which formate brines were the last well construction fluids to contact the producing reservoirs

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SPE 165151 The Long-Term Production Performance of Deep HPHT Gas Condensate Fields Developed Using Formate Brines

  1. 1. SPE 165151Gunnar Olsvik and Siv Howard, Cabot Specialty FluidsJohn Downs, Formate Brine LtdSPE European Formation Damage conference , Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 5-7 June 2013The Long-Term Production Performance ofDeep HPHT Gas Condensate FieldsDeveloped Using Formate Brines
  2. 2. Formate brinesSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013 2SodiumformatePotassiumformateCesiumformateSolubility 47 %wt 77 %wt 83 %wtDensity 1.33 g/cm311.1 lb/gal1.59 g/cm313.2 lb/gal2.30 g/cm319.2 lb/galFormates are also soluble in some non-aqueous solvents
  3. 3. Formate brines for HPHT gas wellsLow-solids heavy fluids for deep HPHT gas wellconstructions – facilitating open hole completions withscreens• Reservoir drill-in• Completion• Workover• Packer fluids• Well suspension• Fracking (OHMS)Used in hundreds of HPHT wells since 1995, including some ofEurope’s deepest, hottest and highly-pressured gas reservoirs3SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  4. 4. HPHT wells - What can go wrong when you try running openhole screen completions in conventional heavy mud ?Example 1Production from 3 HPHT screen wells was plugged by heavy OBMresidues and needed stimulationSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 20134
  5. 5. Example 2Production from 4 HPHT screen wells, accessing 40 billion m3 ofgas (i.e. 50% of gas reserves in place), is plugged by heavy OBMRef : http://www.ipt.ntnu.no/~jsg/undervisning/naturgass/lysark/LysarkZaostrovski2011.pdfSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013 5HPHT wells - What can go wrong when you try running openhole screen completions in conventional heavy mud ?
  6. 6. 42 deep HPHT gas fields developed using formatebrines, 1995-2011* (published data)Country Fields Reservoir DescriptionMatrixtypeDepth, TVD(metres)Permeability(mD)Temperature(oC)Germany Walsrode,SohlingenVoelkersen, Idsingen,Kalle, Weissenmoor,SimonswoldeSandstone 4,450-6,500 0.1-150 150-165Hungary Mako , Vetyem Sandstone 5,692 - 235Kazakhstan Kashagan Carbonate 4,595-5,088 - 100Norway Huldra ,NjordKristin,KvitebjoernTune, ValemonVictoria, Morvin,Vega, AsgardSandstone 4,090-7,380 50-1,000 121-200Pakistan Miano, Sawan Sandstone 3,400 10-5,000 175Saudi Arabia Andar,ShedgumUthmaniyahHawiyah,HaradhTinat, MidrikahSandstoneandcarbonate3,963-4,572 0.1-40 132-154UK Braemar,DevenickDunbar,ElginFranklin,GlenelgJudy, Jura, KessogRhum, ShearwaterWest FranklinSandstone 4,500-7,353 0.01-1,000 123-207USA High Island Sandstone 4,833 - 1776SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013* Now more HPHT fields in Kuwait, India and Malaysia during 2012-2013
  7. 7. The economic benefits of using formate brines inHPHT gas field developments – Reference papers• SPE 130376 (2010): “A Review of the Impact of the Use of Formate Brineson the Economics of Deep Gas Field Development Projects”• SPE 145562 (2011): “Life Without Barite: Ten Years of Drilling Deep HPHTGas Wells With Cesium Formate Brine”SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 20137
  8. 8. Formate brines – The economic benefitsprovided in HPHT gas field developmentsFormate brines tend to improve oil and gas field developmenteconomics by :• Reducing well delivery time and costs• Improving well/operational safetyand reducing risk• Delivering production rates that exceed expectations• Providing more precise reservoir definition8Formate Brine Seminar - Stavanger, 22 November 2012
  9. 9. Several highlights from some Kvitebjoern HPHT gaswells drilled and completed with formatesKvitebjoernwellCompletiontime(days)A-4 17.5A-5 17.8A-15 14.8A-10 15.9A-6 12.7 ** Fastest HPHT well completionin the North Sea9“The target well PI was 51,000 Sm3/day/bar This targetwould have had a skin of 7”“A skin of 0 would have given a PI of 100,000”“THE WELL A-04 GAVE A PI OF 90,000 Sm3/day/bar(ANOTHER FANTASTIC PI)”Operator quote after well testing (Q3 2004 )The Well PI was almost double the targetSPE European Formation Damage Conference, 5-7 June 2013Fast open hole screen completions and high well productivity
  10. 10. But productive for how long ?Question : Do HPHT gas fields developed using formatebrines deliver all of their recoverable hydrocarbon reserves ?Objectives of the analysis presented in this paper :• Map the production profiles of North Sea HPHT fieldswhere formate brines were the last fluids to contact thereservoirs in every well• Compare actual cumulative production over time againstpublished estimates of recoverable reserves at start-up• See if the well construction design influences theproduction profile (e.g. Cased vs. Open hole completions)10SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  11. 11. Reviewed long-term production from 8 North SeaHPHT gas condensate fields in 3 categories11SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013Category Fields Reservoir penetration and well completion1TuneHuldraAll production wells drilled and completed in high-angle open hole with formate brines. Single filtratein reservoir.2 KvitebjørnAll production wells drilled and completed in high-angle open- and cased-holes with formate brines.Multiple filtrate types in reservoir surrounding casedholes.3BraemarGlenelgJuraRhumWest FranklinAll production wells drilled with oil-based mud, thencompleted in cased hole with formate brines as theperforating fluids (with and without kill pills).Multiple filtrate types in all wellsProduction data obtained from UK DECC and Norwegian NPD websites
  12. 12. Tune field – semi-HP/HT gas condensate reservoirdrilled and completed with formate brines, 2002124 wells : 350-900 m horizontal reservoir sections. Open hole screencompletions. Suspended for 6-12 months in formate brine after completionSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  13. 13. Tune wells - Initial Clean-up – Operator’s view(direct copy of slide) June 2003SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 20131313• Wells left for 6-12 months before clean-up• Clean-up : 10 - 24 hours per well• Well performance• Qgas 1.2 – 3.6 MSm3/d• PI 35 – 200 kSm3/d/bar• Well length sensitive• No indication of formation damage• Match to ideal well flow simulations (Prosper) - no skin• Indications of successful clean-up• Shut-in pressures• Water samples during clean-up• Formate and CaCO3 particles• Registered high-density liquid in separator• Tracer results• A-12 T2H non detectable• A-13 H tracer indicating flow from lower reservoir first detected 5 sd afterinitial clean-up <-> doubled well productivity compared to initial flow data• No processing problems Oseberg Field CenterSIWHP SIDHP SIWHP SIDHPbara bara bara baraA-11 AH 169 - 388 -A-12 T2H 175 487 414 510A-13 H 395 514 412 512A-14 H 192 492 406 509Before After3350340034503500355036000 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000Well length [m MD]Depth[mTVDMSL]A-11AHA-12HT2A-13HA-14HA-11 AH plugged back
  14. 14. Tune – Production of recoverable gas and condensatereserves since 2003 (NPD data)14Good early production from the 4 wells- 12.4 million m3 gas /day- 23,000 bbl/day condensateGood sustained production- 90% of recoverable hydrocarbonreserves produced by end of Year 7NPD current estimate of RR:- 18.3 billion m3 gas- 3.3 million bbl condensateOpen hole screen completions and single filtrateSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  15. 15. • 6 production wells• 1-2 Darcy sandstone• BHST: 147oC• TVD : 3,900 m• Hole angle : 45-55o• Fluid density: SG1.89-1.96• 230-343 m x 81/2” reservoir sections• Open hole completions, 65/8” wire wrappedscreens• Lower completion in formate drilling fluid andupper completions in clear brineHuldra field – HPHT gas condensate reservoirdrilled and completed with formate brines, 200115SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  16. 16. Huldra – Production of recoverable gas andcondensate reserves since Nov 2001 (NPD data)16Plateau production from first 3 wells- 10 million m3 gas /day- 30,000 bbl/day condensateGood sustained production- 78% of recoverable gas and 89% ofcondensate produced by end of Year 7- Despite rapid pressure decline.....NPD current estimate of RR:- 17.5 billion m3 gas- 5.1 million bbl condensateOpen hole screen completions and single filtrateSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  17. 17. • 13 wells to date – 8 O/B, 5 in MPD mode• 100 mD sandstone• BHST: 155oC• TVD : 4,000 m• Hole angle : 20-40o• Fluid density: SG 2.02 for O/B• 279-583 m x 81/2” reservoir sections• 6 wells completed in open hole : 300-micron single wire-wrappedscreens.• Remainder of wells cased and perforatedKvitebjørn field – HPHT gas condensate reservoir drilledand completed with formate brines, 2004-201317SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  18. 18. Kvitebjørn– Production of recoverable gas andcondensate reserves since Oct 2004 (NPD data)18Good production reported from first 7 wells in 2006- 20 million m3 gas /day- 48,000 bbl/day condensateGood sustained production (end Y8)- 37 billion m3 gas- 17 million m3 of condensate- Produced 70% of original est. RR byend of 8th yearNPD : Est. RR have been upgraded- 89 billion m3 gas (from 55)- 27 million m3 condensate (from 22)Note : Shut down 15 months, Y3-5- To slow reservoir pressure depletion- Repairs to export pipelineSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  19. 19. Formate brines have been used to complete all ofthe cased wells in 5 HPHT fields in UK North SeaAll wells drilled with OBM19SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013* The deepest, hottest and highest-pressured fields in UK North SeaFieldOperator No.ofwellsDepth(meters)Pressure(bar)Temp(oC)Wellhead Brinedensity(kg/m3)Braemar Marathon1(NB)4,500 701 136 Sub-sea 1.86Rhum BP 3 4,750 862 149 Sub-sea 2.19West Franklin* Total 2 7,327 1,154 204 Platform 1.94Glenelg* Total1(NB)7,385 1,150 200 Platform 1.78Jura Total 2 3,935 702 127 Sub-sea 2.09
  20. 20. Fluid losses from HPHT wells in UK North Seaperforated in overbalance in formate brines20SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013Field Kill Pill Fluid losses during andafter perforating(m3)CommentBraemar – 1 well No 2.3Re-perforation of appraisal well.Short flow and then zero lossesRhum Yes 0.5Flowed in first few minutes,then zero losses for 3 daysGlenelg – 1 well No 17.72m3 on perforating and then15.7m3 seepage lossesJuraYes –overperfs1.46 Flow stopped within 3 hoursKessogYes – aboveperfs1.180.36 m3 in first 45 mins, then0.22m3 in next hour and 0.6m3over next 7.5 hours
  21. 21. Braemar field – Production of recoverable gas andcondensate reserves since September 2003 (DECC data)21Estimated (2003) recoverable reserves produced in full fromthis single well development by Year 9Estimated recoverable reserves- 3.28 billion m3 gas- 1.59 million m3 condensateCumulative production @Sep 2012- 3.4 billion m3 gas- 1.9 million m3 condensateSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  22. 22. Glenelg – Production of gas and condensate sinceMarch 2006 (DECC data)25No published reserves information ? Similar to Braemar ?Highest temperature and pressure reservoir developed in UKNorth Sea (2006), accessed by single extended reach wellGood initial productionOperator statements :- «30,000 boe/day capability»- «500,000 m3/year condensate»Cumulative production @ Feb 2011- 2.2 billion m3 gas- 2.13 million m3 condensateSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  23. 23. BP Rhum field – largest undeveloped gas fieldin UK in 2005SPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013 2345 mD sandstone reservoir
  24. 24. Rhum field – Production of recoverable gas reserves:December 2005- October 2010 (DECC data)23After nearly 5 years the 3 Rhum production wells had produced35% of the estimated recoverable gas reservesEstimated recoverable reserves- 23 billion m3 gasCumulative production Oct 2010- 7.9 billion m3 gasProduction suspended since late2010- EU sanctions against IranSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  25. 25. Jura – Production of gas and condensate since May2008 (DECC data)24Estimated (2008) proved and probable reserves of 170 millionboe – no published segmentation by hydrocarbon typeGood initial production from 2 wells- 1.87 billion m3 gas produced during Y2Cumulative production @ June 2012- 6.58 billion m3 gas- 1.1 million m3 condensate= 46 million boe in total= 27% production of est. RR after 4 yearsSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  26. 26. West Franklin – Production of gas and condensatefrom West Franklin/Franklin 2001-11 (DECC data)26No published reserves information. Hottest, highest pressurecommercial development in world (2007), accessed by twoextended reach wells, F7z and F9yExcellent initial productionOperator statements :- « F9y has 40,000 boe/day capability»- «one of most productive wells inN. Sea»- «2.6 million m3/day of gas from F9y»West Franklin has sustainedthe Franklin field output- > 2.5 billion m3 gas per year from Y6onwardsNote : 574 m3 of cesium formate brine was pumped into formation around F9YSPE European Formation Damage conference, 5-7 June 2013
  27. 27. Conclusions – Cat 1 HPHT wells - Drilled andcompleted in high-angle open hole with formate brinesTune and Huldra fields produced 100% of recoverable gas andcondensate reserves within 10 years – average 3.5 billion m3gas /wellGas – 90% in 7-8 years Condensate – 90% in 5-7 yearsProvides evidence that drilling and completing HPHT gas production wells inopen hole with formate brines can be a successful strategy27Formate Brine Seminar - Stavanger, 22 November 2012
  28. 28. Conclusions – Cat 2 HPHT wells - Drilled andcompleted in open- and cased-hole with formate brinesKvitebjørn field has produced 70 % of the original estimatedreserves by end of Year 8 – despite production constraints• Gas production has been at a steady6-7 billion m3/year for last 4 years – alreadyproduced 3 billion m3 gas per well• Need more time to see how the productionprogresses towards upgraded recoverablereserves estimate• Good chance to compare durability of open- hole versus cased-holeHPHT wells ?28Formate Brine Seminar - Stavanger, 22 November 2012
  29. 29. Conclusions – Cat 3 HPHT wells - drilled with OBM andcompleted in cased-hole with formate brines (no pill)Braemar and Glenelg are both small rich-gas condensate fieldsdrained by single cased wells perforated in formate brineswithout kill pills• Braemar reached original est. RR figure byYear 9• Glenelg following same gas production trackand already exceeded 2 million m3 condensateproduction by Year 529Formate Brine Seminar - Stavanger, 22 November 2012
  30. 30. Conclusions – Cat 3 HPHT wells - drilled with OBM andcompleted in cased-hole with formate brines+ kill pillRhum, Jura and West Franklin are lean gas condensate fields drained by2 or 3 cased wells, perforated in formate brines with kill pills• Rhum : 35% recovery of reserves by Year 5,before production suspended• Jura : 27% recovery of reserves after 4 years• West Franklin: No cumulative productiondata available but was apparently producing@ >30,000 boe/day in the years before Elgin gasleak in March 2012Too early to get a picture of long-term production performance30Formate Brine Seminar - Stavanger, 22 November 2012

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