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  1. 1. Dualism: The metaphysical view that all things are reducible to two essentially different realities. Sunday, 27 October, 13
  2. 2. Rene Descartes A Dualist and father of modern philosophy Published Meditations on First Philosophy in 1641 Sunday, 27 October, 13
  3. 3. He argued that there was a total distinction between mental and material substance The defining characteristic of matter was to occupy space of the mind it was to be conscious or to think Sunday, 27 October, 13
  4. 4. How would you classify the following? Mind or matter? desire stones will houses emotion gravity consciousness Sunday, 27 October, 13
  5. 5. Descartes argued that because minds do not occupy space, that is to say they do not have physical properties, that minds are therefore completely nonphysical. Every person, then, is comprised of two elements: a physical body and a nonphysical object, the mind. Sunday, 27 October, 13
  6. 6. Support for Dualism •!-mental phenomena, your emotions for example, are very different from physical ones; that they are nonphysical is part of what makes them so distinctive •!-physical reality follows mathematics, but nonphysical things or activities, such as thinking, cannot be quantified by laws of math Sunday, 27 October, 13
  7. 7. Critics •!-we are all part of the natural order and it is physical so it seems odd to think that something exists outside this construct, which dualism says. •!-how can nonphysical elements interact with physical ones? We know this happens but how is it possible if they are separated? What would be the conductor or relationship? Sunday, 27 October, 13
  8. 8. Houston, we have a problem. The Mind-Body Problem Sunday, 27 October, 13
  9. 9. So they are different but they do have an impact? For example, your decision in your mind to watch TV has a physical consequence—turning on the TV; similarly, your desire for entertainment. And things that happen in the physical world can have mental consequences--- what can you think of? Sunday, 27 October, 13
  10. 10. Sunday, 27 October, 13
  11. 11. But although any one attribute is enough to give us knowledge of a substance, there is always one chief property of a substance that constitutes its nature and essence, and upon which all the others depend. Thus extension in length, breadth and depth makes up the nature of the physical substance; and thought makes up the nature of thinking substance. For, everything else that may be attributed to bodies presupposes their extension, and is only a form of this extended thing; just as everything that we find in mind is only some form of thinking. Thus, for example, we cannot conceive of a figure except as an extended thing, nor of movement except as taking place in an extended space; and in some way imagination, feeling and will occur only in a thinking thing. But, on the other hand, we are able to conceive of extension without figure or action, and of thinking without imagination or sensation, and so on, as is quite clear to anyone who examines the matter carefully. Sunday, 27 October, 13