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Weather instruments and maps


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A lesson on 5 different instruments used to gather WX data.

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Weather instruments and maps

  1. 1. Weather Instruments Anemometers, Barometers, Sling Psychrometers, Thermometers, and Weather Charts.
  2. 2. Air Temp and Thermometer • “Thermo” = Heat – Measures the amount of heat energy in the atmosphere. – Heat comes from solar radiation that was absorbed by the atmosphere and hydrosphere and goes into the air. – Measured by THERMOMETER
  3. 3. Can you read this thermometer?
  4. 4. Humidity and Sling Psychrometer • “Psychro” = Cold – Measures the amount of water vapor in the air. – Relative humidity is the current amount of water vapor in the air compared to the total amount of water vapor the air can hold. • When the air is nearly completely filled with vapor, it feels “muggy” if the air is hot. What word would you use to describe humidity? – Measured by PSYCHROMETER
  5. 5. Comparing Humidity Levels
  6. 6. Can you tell the relative humidity? • If the relative humidity of the air is 68%... How would it feel outside?
  7. 7. Wind Speed and Anemometer • “Anemo” = Wind – Measures the wind speed in the air. – Changes in air temperature, air pressure, and humidity cause air to move (called wind) – Horizontal (side to side) movement of air: WIND – Vertical (up and down) movement of air: AIR CURRENT – Measured by ANEMOMETER
  8. 8. Anemometer… Close Up!
  9. 9. Convection Currents or Cells • Wind is caused by… – Warm air rises because it is less dense, cooler sinks because it is more dense. – This pattern is called a convection cell
  10. 10. Air Pressure and Barometer • “Baro” = Weight – The amount of force exerted by the air’s gas molecules hitting a surface area. – Measured in millibars (mb) – When air heats up, the molecules spread apart and the air pressure goes down. – Measured by BAROMETER
  11. 11. Reading a Barometer • Can you read this Barometer? • Standard air pressure is 29.9 mb of mercury… does this barometer read at standard air pressure?
  12. 12. Weather Charts • Weather Charts have lots of symbols and information.
  13. 13. Fronts and Symbols • Warm air mass behind a cold air mass – warm front • Cold air mass behind a warm air mass – cold front • Occluded fronts can signal weakening of storm • Stationary fronts prolong bad weather
  14. 14. Pressure Systems • High pressure: typically fair weather  • Low pressure: typically cloudy, unstable conditions… Bad weather  • General movement: west to east in the US
  15. 15. Can you read this map?
  16. 16. Map Questions… • What is located where the rain is happening High or Low pressure? • What do you notice the weather conditions are like near the H’s? • What type of front is located in the central United States? • What can you predict about future weather conditions in Arkansas based on this map?
  17. 17. Video – “Weather instruments”