Introduction Medieval Village – Market and the Sabbath
Bells calling Gregorian Chants
Three estates very few even of the nobles are able to read and write Nobility Clergy – only educated class Everyone else
Life forces, magic and religion. Magic is waning as religion takes over. The fall of Rome means a lot of knowledge is lost.
Initial writing surfaces Stone, meta, papyrus.
Pictograms Cuneiform Sumerians
Egypt Egyptians Hieroglyphics Cross between an alphabet and pictograms
Phoenicians first alphabet. An alphabet the symbols represent sounds
Word History: Latin c dex, the source of our word, is a variant of caudex, a wooden stump to which petty criminals were tied in ancient Rome, rather like our stocks. This was also the word for a book made of thin wooden strips coated with wax upon which one wrote. The usual modern sense of codex, &quot;book formed of bound leaves of paper or parchment,&quot; is due to Christianity. By the first century b.c. there existed at Rome notebooks made of leaves of parchment, used for rough copy, first drafts, and notes. By the first century a.d. such manuals were used for commercial copies of classical literature. The Christians adopted this parchment manual format for the Scriptures used in their liturgy because a codex is easier to handle than a scroll and because one can write on both sides of a parchment but on only one side of a papyrus scroll. By the early second century all Scripture was reproduced in codex form. In traditional Christian iconography, therefore, the Hebrew prophets are represented holding scrolls and the Evangelists holding codices.
Pergamon, Pergamum or Pérgamo (in Greek, Πέργαμος) was an ancient Greek city in modern-day Turkey, in Mysia, today located 16 miles (26 km) from the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakırçay), that became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 281–133 BC. Today, the main sites of ancient Pergamon are to the north and west of the modern city of Bergama. Egyptians wont sell papyrus to king. He needs another material to write on.
Animal skins Lime water Stretched and scraped Dried and dusted Sold to book maker
Scribes monks Copied copy writing and music make own ink make own colors
Illumination illuminators Page design
Minature Gilding Marginalia Historiated Initial Decorated Letter