Five elements of a balanced literacy program

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Five elements of a balanced literacy program

  1. 1. Five Elements of a Balanced Literacy Program JESSICA FAZZINI MRD 6202
  2. 2. Five Elements Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency ComprehensionVocabulary
  3. 3. Phonemic Awareness “The ability to identify and manipulate the sounds letters represent, including blending sounds to make words, creating rhyming patterns, and counting phonemes [individual sounds].” (McEwan, 2009, p. 17)
  4. 4. Instructional Strategies Pre-K to 1st Grade  “Studies have found that young children benefit the most from short instructional sessions (up to 30 minutes long) offered in small group settings.” (Brummitt-Yale, 2012)  I would break my students into groups based on their academic abilities. Once broken into groups I can implement centers, various activities, so all students needs would be met. During this time I can help support my struggling students and give them more intensive instruction while other students are practicing their skills.  “One of the easiest ways to help children realize that words are made up of several sounds and syllables is to allow them to “break up” words by clapping or tapping out their syllables.” (Brummitt-Yale, 2012)  I would incorporate clapping/tapping during whole or small group instruction. Students can use their fingers, feet, object, or music stick for tapping. In order to implement this strategy, I would put a word up on the smart board and the students, in unison, would say the word and then repeat it but clapping or tapping out the syllables.
  5. 5. Resources Print-Based  Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Workbook- Grades K-1. This book has 80 pages of research based activities that can be easily implemented into the classroom. It will help reinforce skills such as: phoneme blending, segmentation, and manipulation, letter recognition, blends, and digraphs. It also comes with student assessments. Non-Print-Based  “Picture flashcards are excellent tools for helping children who do not have strong phonics skills work on their phonemic awareness.” (Brummitt-Yale, 2012)  I would write grade-specific words on a series of flashcards with familiar pictures. Individually or during small group instruction, I would show a card and the student(s)would first tell me the picture. Then I would ask them to say the word as well as identify the first and second sounds in the word. After doing this multiple times with different cards it will transfer into their long-term memory. As the student(s) shows growth, new or more challenging words can be added. (Brummitt-Yale, 2012)
  6. 6. Assessment Strategies Pre-K to 1st Grade Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)  “Informal diagnostic, individually administered assessment tool to help you determine the point of instruction for your students and monitor their progress.” (Florida Center for Reading Research, 2007, p. 1)  This assessment is great not only for its flexibility, but needs little to no materials to administer it. It can test student's in grades Pre- K to Second grade. It is also great because the teacher can add words that he/she want to test or even delete words to better fit their students needs. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)  “Short fluency measures used to regularly monitor the development of early literacy and early reading skills.” (University of Oregon, 2014)  This assessment is for grades K-3 and is a quick (1-5 minutes) way to assess your students. It is great because it tests students phonological awareness, fluency, and comprehension. Also, educators are provided with all the materials necessary to implement the assessment in their classroom.
  7. 7. Phonics “An understanding of the alphabetic principle (that letters either singly or in combination represent various sounds) and the ability to apply this knowledge in the decoding of unfamiliar words.” (McEwan, 2009, p. 37) Decoding
  8. 8. Instructional Strategies Pre-K to 1st Grade  Flexible Grouping- “a variety of small, skill based groups that receive reading instruction targeted specifically to their needs.” (McEwan, 2009, p. 46)  I would create skill groups; students focus on specific skills, such as blending and segmenting phonemes. They would rotate through different activities like oral reading, peer editing, or word study activities. This way students don’t get bored but are able to get enough phonic practice based on their needs. (McEwan, 2009)  Providing students with text on their reading levels/lexile levels.  Students can become very frustrated when a book is above their level. In order to create confidence and be beneficial for the student the book must be decodable and on their reading level. In order to identify what each lexile level I would give my students a pre-test, such as STAR reading or a classroom assessment. That way I could group my students appropriately. (McEwan, 2009)
  9. 9. Instructional Resources Print-Based Making Words: Multilevel, hands-on, Developmentally Appropriate Spelling and Phonics Activities (book)- A great classroom resource that has a variety of phonics lessons. It also provides teachers with effective tools for strengthening students spelling and phonics skills. Non-Print-Based Twinkl.com is a great resource for literacy skills. Teachers can print out flash cards, worksheets, and assessments. Keeping in mind though that its more for those struggling or low readers that need intensive support.
  10. 10. Assessment Strategies Pre-K to 1stGrade Words Their Way: Word Study in Action  I would use this as a pre-assessment to place or group my students. It tests students phonics, vocabulary, and spelling. Depending on how each student scores, the teacher can identify which students are below, on, or above as well as specific areas for instruction. (Florida Center for Reading Research, 2007, p. 1) Qualitative Reading Inventory  Can be given as a pre-test or post- test. Is accessible for all grade levels (K-12). It includes both narrative and expository passages and word lists. I personally like that you can measure students’ phonics, fluency, and comprehension skills. (Informal Reading Inventory, 2004)
  11. 11. Fluency “The ability to read so effortlessly and automatically that working memory is available for the ultimate purpose of reading—extracting and constructing meaning form text.” (McEwan, 2009, p. 69)
  12. 12. Instructional Strategies 4th Grade  Readers’ Theater- “repeated reading enables students to participate in the reading of a play without props, scenery, and endless rehearsals.” (McEwan, 2009, p. 85)  I would like to implement this strategy during whole group instruction. The kids can pick out their parts and practice them throughout the week. At the end of the week we can do a role play and they can “act” out their parts.  Recording/Keeping track of their fluency  “When students assess and monitor their own fluency, they are highly motivated to work harder for increased fluency.” This is so true, students will become more aware of their fluency and will push themselves to become better. I believe this would be best implemented during small group instruction. Students need to be able to have time to be tested and then record their information. I would also give students an assessment bi-weekly so they could see their progression over a period of time.
  13. 13. Resources Print-Based  I think any type of text that gets the students practicing reading aloud or silently is beneficial for them. I personally like Time for Kids magazines as well as Scholastic. The students like the vivid colors and pictures, and I like that it provides students with current events. Also, I can provide students with grade level-text because I can order the grade I need. Non-Print-Based  Reading Resource.net provides teachers with a variety of activities they can implement in their classroom. I like that it also provides teachers with resources for students with Dyslexia. Many times we do have students that are Dyslexic and we aren’t sure how to help them.
  14. 14. Assessment Strategies 4th Grade DIBELS  As I mentioned previously, this is a great assessment tool for all ages. It is a quick 1-5 minute assessment that tests students words per minute (wpm) as well as their comprehension. It can be used as a pre or post-assessment. (University of Oregon, 2014) Multilevel Academic Skills Inventory  “A standardized measure of oral reading fluency that contains several testing selections for each grade level.” (McEwan, 2009, p. 86) It also provides teachers with classroom materials that have already been graded and a variety of passages to choose from.
  15. 15. Vocabulary “Knowing the meaning of words, knowing about the relationships between words, and having linguistic knowledge about words.” (McEwan, 2009, p. 89)
  16. 16. Instructional Strategies 4th Grade  Integrate Spelling and Vocabulary Instruction  To increase vocabulary learning use students sensory channels; “have students see the word, say the word, and spell the word in addition to learning its meaning.” (McEwan, 2009, p. 101)  At the beginning of each week my students receive their spelling homework (see the words). In order to integrate spelling and vocabulary, I will have students echo read each spelling word (say the words). Then I will have them record each word into their agenda book (spell the words)  Daily Vocabulary Notebook-  Students will keep this notebook in the classroom as a resource throughout the year. While reading text, students may come to a word they don’t know. They will record it in their notebook along with the definition, example, and picture that represents the meaning of the word. This will help create a vocabulary rich environment.
  17. 17. Resources Print-Based  Daily Vocabulary Boosters: Quick and Fun Daily Activities that Teach 180 Must-Know Words to Strengthen Students’ Reading and Writing Skills (book)-  For just 10 minutes a day, students can increase their word power through these quick and fun activities. This could be used as a warm-up or during transition times in class. Non-Print-Based  Flocabulary.com- A great website for students to use to practice vocabulary skills, such as context clues. Music Lyrics can be printed out and students can identify new words and use their context clues to define them. This website also provides teachers with printable classroom activities and lesson plans.
  18. 18. Assessment Strategies 4th Grade Matching  There is a list of vocabulary words and a list of definitions. Students must match the word to the correct definition.  This is good to do after students have worked on certain vocabulary words throughout the week and you want to test their knowledge. Frayer Diagram  After practicing and working on certain vocabulary words, have students choose three and fill in a Frayer diagram.  I would have my students use the Frayer diagram, but change the non- example to “draw a picture”. I think that is more age appropriate for my students.
  19. 19. Comprehension “The extraction or construction of meaning from text using the seven cognitive strategies of highly skilled readers as appropriate.” (McEwan, 2009, p. 113)
  20. 20. Instructional Strategies 4th Grade  Think-Aloud Modeling  This strategy has the teacher “showing students exactly how a good reader would apply (a particular strategy). (McEwan, 2009, p. 128)  This would be best implemented during whole instruction when the teacher is already explaining the activity for the day. The teacher can explain all the analyzing and inferring he/she had to do in order to get an answer. Students need to see our thinking processes in order to better understand how to think themselves.  Scaffolding  “Supporting students by any of the following means: people, text, tasks, and materials.” (McEwan, 2009, p. 130) I know my student are provided with enough teacher support. The area that lacks right now is the text and materials. Next year I would like to supply my classroom with a variety of lexile levels, that way all students needs can be met. I also feel I need to “modify” some of my students tasks in order to help build them. Once they show growth I can always challenge them. But, baby steps need to be made first.
  21. 21. Resources Print-Based  Hi-Lo Passages to Build Comprehension: Grades 3-4  A great book filled with practice pages, in a variety of genres to help struggling readers.  I like that this provides teachers with a variety of choices as well as hitting all academic ability levels. This would be great to implement during reading targeted instruction. Non-Print-Based  Odyssey is a great website for elementary students. It provides them with animated characters and fun activities, but they are still learning. Students must read a variety of passages and answer questions as well as take short tests. This is a great website for students to go on during independent work. And, the teacher can monitor and track how the student is doing throughout each activity.
  22. 22. Assessment Strategies 4th Grade Summary  After reading a passage, have students write a 5W summary: explaining who was in the story, what happened, when and where it took place (setting), and why. If a student is unable to answer one of the five W’s then you know they didn’t comprehend what they read. Question-Answer  Give students multiple questions that they must answer in complete sentences. These questions should have students using their higher order thinking skills and should pertain to a certain story. Depending on how each student answers the question will provide teachers with feedback on if students are understanding the skills being taught in class. It will also show if the student is understanding what they are reading. (McEwan, 2009)
  23. 23. References • BRUMMITT-YALE, J. (2012). EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING PHONEMIC AWARENESS. RETRIEVED JUNE 2014, FROM HTTP://WWW.K12READER.COM/EFFECTIVE-STRATEGIES-FOR- TEACHING- PHONEMIC-AWARENESS/ • FLORIDA CENTER FOR READING RESEARCH. (2007). PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS SKILLS TEST. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://WWW.ICYTE.COM/CYTES/SHOW/740125?KEY=E13A467DF54LE433CE 1B3C5958F89881F2CE2098 • FLORIDA CENTER FOR READING RESEARCH. (2007). WORDS THEIR WAY ASSESS: PLACEMENT AND GROUPING. RETRIEVED FROM HTTP://WWW/ICYTE.COM/CYTES/SHOW/685237?KEY=5BD542AD77C2DD51EDCAB1F750F CB5C440D5D854 • INFORMAL READING INVENTORY (QUALITATIVE READING INVENTORY). (2004). READING ROCKETS. RETRIEVED JUNE 2014, FROM HTTP://READINGROCKETS.ORG/ARTICLE/91 • MCEWAN, E. K. (2009). TEACH THEM ALL TO READ: CATCHING KIDS BEFORE THEY FALL THROUGH THE CRACKS (2ND ED.). THOUSANDS OAKS, CALIF.: CORWIN. • UNIVERSITY OF OREGON. (2014). DYNAMIC INDICATORS OF BASIC EARLY LITERACY SKILLS (DIBELS): UO DIBELS DATA SYSTEM. RETRIEVED JUNE 2014, FROM HTTPS://DIBELS.UOREGON.EDU/MARKET/ASSESSMENT/DIBELS

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