Bibliometrics presentation, Window on Research June 2010


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  • Variety of publishing routes these days, and those in different contexts will value different types: journal articles, monographs, blogs & tweets. Within those who value journal articles, there are measures of quality of the journal and therefore of the research described in it. Just a paper count is not good enough! Webometrics could include: geographic coverage of visitors, academic networks of visitors, people linking to your article/site
  • Nobel prize, ig nobel prize!
  • Also Uni management measures research more broadly than just citations… REF: likely to have one methodology for measuring bibliometrics and peer panels for each discipline can choose whether to use this method or not. Also the European Commission & US National scientific bodies. RCUK? Interest in bibliometrics is international! Why the interest in citations? Studies have been done showing correlation with outcomes of RAE panel decisions. Citations bibliometrics are quantitative & therefore summaries of large scale activity can be produced: this is complementary to the “local view” of peer review. Bias is removed in large data collections viewed by external people… eg where written or previous reputations
  • Mixture of good and bad motivations!
  • Eg Many articles with many authors in Physics, when compared to History Within a discipline more concerned with articles, citation numbers can also be higher: there are more articles to make citations! Eg Mathematics might not attract so many citations immediately, but will continue to be cited years after the end of a Physics article’s peak. Average numbers of citations vary across disciplines: whether mean or median, but in some disciplines the highly cited articles skew averages more than in others.
  • Go to Web of Science and try an author search
  • If you get lots of results, you can use the refinements on the left hand side to help you to identify only the work by your author of interest.
  • Scroll down to see your search history and get your results of your search!
  • Second generation counts are like Google PageRank and far more difficult to calculate but indicative of long term impacts. It’s the no. of citations of the papers which cite yours… Percentile indicators are calculated by taking the year and journal and category of a paper and creating a citation frequency index of all papers matching those criteria and determining the percentage of papers at each level of citation. This places a paper relative to others in its field…
  • Useful for authors to see, themselves. NB based on our subscription data, eg if cited by content we don’t subscribe to, we don’t see… or at least that’s my understanding. NB also that you can subscribe to an alert about your own articles.
  • (Uni of Warwick has not got a SCOPUS subscription: their main rival is WoK, which was used for the UK REF pilot)
  • Same paper as in the WoK example… and in fact the citation is for the same paper as WoK found. NB top result from WRAP! (Not sure why, but likely to be because of the “cited by” link: this info comes from G Scholar. Again, not sure why G Scholar can link the WRAP paper to the citation but not the other versions.)
  • NB the published version does not have a “Cited by” link! However the citation is for the published article. This paper is not listed on WoK, so WoK does not measure citations of it. Also, the paper that cites this one is not a traditional scholarly, published one: it appears to be an online dissertation. G Scholar is therefore useful to the author in addition to what WoK can tell them.
  • Concern about panel workload as well as disciplines differing
  • If an author considers citations to be relevant, to some degree, then it doesn’t hurt to be aware of how measurements are taken, and all the tips to increase numbers… since the majority of articles don’t get cited, you can cite yourself and that’s a start. It won’t increase your standing in the eyes of your peers, but it will increase a statistic. If you can get someone else to cite you, then others are more likely to as well: NB that Google puts “cited by” articles first in the results so you don’t even need the citation to be from a peer to boost Google juice and therefore readership, it could be from anyone with a web page who uses a citation format that G Scholar recognises! Even links to your web page or to your paper in WRAP will boost the Google juice of your profile. Therefore difficult to prove the difference WRAP can make.
  • Still early days for profiles.
  • Bibliometrics presentation, Window on Research June 2010

    1. 1. Journal publication and bibliometrics Window on Research, 10 June 2010 Jenny Delasalle
    2. 2. We will cover… <ul><li>THEME: Bibliometrics – what they are and how they are used </li></ul><ul><li>Journal impact factors: how they are calculated and how they can be used? </li></ul><ul><li>What is happening with the REF?! </li></ul><ul><li>What is the H-index, and how can I find an author’s score? </li></ul><ul><li>Open access and copyright: implications. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What are bibliometrics? <ul><li>Metrics relating to publications… including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper counts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>journal impact factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the H-index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>citation scores at article level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visitor numbers (or other info) for online articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and many others…. eg blog entries, tags, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), Scopus (Elsevier) and Google Scholar are sources. </li></ul>
    4. 4. How are bibliometrics used? <ul><li>One of many possible measures of research… others include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer review involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal editorships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research grant applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prestigious awards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PhD supervision load </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different metrics are used in different ways. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Who is interested in citations? <ul><li>University management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>indication of staff performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeting of support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate capabilities/accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HEFCE, through REF - for science disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>Authors themselves: to identify journals for own articles and to know who is working in the same field… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lead to collaborations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrate others’ collaborations. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 9. <ul><li>Calculation of Journal Impact Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A = total cites in 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B = 1992 cites to articles published in 1990-91 (this is a subset of A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C = number of articles published in 1990-91 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D = B/C = 1992 impact factor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 year impact factor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A = citations in 1992 to articles published in 1987-91 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B = articles published in 1987-91 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C = A/B = five-year impact factor </li></ul></ul>
    7. 10. Some motivations for citations <ul><li>Paying homage to experts </li></ul><ul><li>Giving credit to peers </li></ul><ul><li>Criticising/correcting previous work (own or others) </li></ul><ul><li>Sign-posting under-noticed work </li></ul><ul><li>Provide background reading </li></ul><ul><li>Lend weight to own claims </li></ul><ul><li>Self citations! </li></ul>
    8. 11. Citation patterns <ul><li>Most publications have little or no citations. </li></ul><ul><li>Variety across the disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore comparisons within a discipline are most useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Percentages against a world average within each discipline are more useful than basic numbers. </li></ul>
    9. 12. About the H-index <ul><li>Invented by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm to calculate quality and sustainability of research output </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated using number of publications and number of citations per output </li></ul><ul><li>A researcher with an index of h has published h papers each of which has been cited by others at least h times </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. a H-index of 20 means there are 20 published papers each with at least 20 citations </li></ul>
    10. 13. Example H-index <ul><li>E.g. Professor X has a total of 10 publications </li></ul><ul><li>Publication 1 20 cites </li></ul><ul><li>Publication 2 18 cites </li></ul><ul><li>Publication 3 11 cites </li></ul><ul><li>Publication 4 7 cites </li></ul><ul><li>----------------------------------------------------------- H-index: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Publication 5 4 cites </li></ul><ul><li>Publication 6 3 cites </li></ul><ul><li>Publications 7,8,9,10 0 cites </li></ul>
    11. 14. H-Index, is it useful? <ul><li>Conceived for physicists to rank researchers within the field and give an approximation of level of attainment: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. H-index 10-12: useful guide for tenure </li></ul><ul><li>H-index 20: full professorship </li></ul><ul><li>Suffers from similar limitations to other citation count methodologies: </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t account for co-authorship </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t consider average citation counts in the field, which can differ greatly </li></ul><ul><li>Uses total number of publications, a problem for early career researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t account for singular successful publications </li></ul>
    12. 15. Looking up your H-index <ul><li>Creating a set of articles which are all yours, and which is complete. </li></ul>
    13. 26. Telling a good story… <ul><li>List of your articles and number of times each has been cited. </li></ul><ul><li>Journal Expected citation rate? Average for the journal your article appears in, for the year of publication. </li></ul><ul><li>Is it high or low for your discipline, generally? </li></ul><ul><li>Add context by looking at who has cited your work. Anyone particularly impressive?! </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation counts… </li></ul>
    14. 27. Who has cited my article?
    15. 28. Other metrics providers <ul><li>SCOPUS data is being used by the Australian equivalent of the RAE/REF. </li></ul><ul><li>Google Scholar also provides citation information which is presented in Google search results… but not as reports or with value added. </li></ul><ul><li>GScholar picks up on citations from anywhere on the web, not only citations in scholarly publications… </li></ul><ul><li>GScholar is useful for monographs and journals not indexed by WoS or Scopus. </li></ul>
    16. 31. The author’s perspective <ul><li>A record of what you have published will be useful for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>your CV. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing information to University data gathering exercises (Department level or REF). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>web pages that raise your profile (including WRAP, although you need full text files too). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keeping an eye on who is citing your work helps you to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify future potential collaborators. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain awareness of other research in your field and interpretations of your work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become aware of which articles are influencing your research profile the most. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 32. The REF <ul><li>“ Led by expert review, informed by metrics.” </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting to disciplinary differences. </li></ul><ul><li>They are going to be looking for “Impact”. </li></ul><ul><li>Having a record of who has published what (with full metadata records!) will be an advantage to the University when preparing any kind of REF return. </li></ul>
    18. 33. Raising citations <ul><li>Tips and tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High impact journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self citations count! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters can be cited too, and TR counts such citations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review articles attract more citations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus marketing activity on most recent papers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use key phrases in all your work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A (very) long term game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First step is increasing readership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Access, WRAP and Google juice! </li></ul></ul>
    19. 34. Open Access journals <ul><li>Some are also high impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Funder Mandates: SherpaJuliet - </li></ul><ul><li>5 ways to meet them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Access journal in which there is no fee to publish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Access journal in which the author must pay a fee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A traditional, subscription-based journal, with early version in an OA repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A traditional, subscription-based journal  with whom you negotiate in order to allow a repository deposit. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find an OA title: DOAJ - </li></ul><ul><li>Check a journal’s OA policy: SherpaRomeo - </li></ul>
    20. 35. Evidence of raised profiles and citation impact <ul><li>Greater visibility and accessibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Open access publishing has been demonstrated to raise citations. </li></ul><ul><li>Google juice for one paper on the domain adds to the juice of all papers there. </li></ul><ul><li>Google Scholar picks up on citations of WRAP content. </li></ul><ul><li>WRAP visitor numbers can be demonstrated. </li></ul>
    21. 36. Gaining visitors in WRAP <ul><li>Boost your Google juice! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put a link to the WRAP record for your paper anywhere: especially wikipedia! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get your papers into WRAP as quickly as possible: even when there is an embargo period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get someone else to cite your paper, even in a draft paper online, even if they don’t mention WRAP in any way: Google Scholar makes connections based on such citations. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 37. Any Questions?