“Is a persistent pattern of inattention and or
hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequent and
severe than is typically observed in individuals at a
comparable level of development”
First named by British doctor, Dr. George Still in 1902.
"Defect of Moral Control" disorder.
ADHD has evolved, both in name and classification
Hyperkinetic reaction of childhood (1968)
Attention deficit disorder (1980)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (1994)
Thought to be caused by bad parenting and/or brain damage
Hyperactive Impulsive Type
Not paying attention to detail
Making careless mistakes
Failing to pay attention and keep on task
Being unable to follow or understand instructions
Avoiding tasks that involve effort
Being distracted or forgetful
Do not exhibit overt signs of physical hyperactivity, causing parents or teachers
to overlook the possibility of ADHD
Have trouble achieving academic success.
Tend to receive treatment at a later age.
Most often diagnosed with girls
Getting up often when seated
Running or climbing at inappropriate times
Having trouble playing quietly
Talking excessively or out of turn
Easily noticeable for parents and teachers.
Difficulty in accepting delayed gratification.
Tend to receive treatment earlier
Most often diagnosed with boys
Do not exhibit a distinct tendency toward either category; instead, they
consistently display behaviors associated with both
Combined Type is the most common among children roughly affecting
61% of all ADHD cases.
Prevents child from processing information normally.
About 3-5% of all children globally are diagnosed
Boys are 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with
ADHD than girls.
ADHD tends to run in families
Genetic link is stronger in twins.
If one twin has ADHD there's an 82% chance the other will
have it as well
ADHD is found in all cultures.
Symptoms of ADHD tend to decrease as child
matures, 60% will have symptoms into adulthood.
Most children with ADHD struggle in the classroom.
Score lower than their peers on IQ and achievement
Remedial tutoring is often necessary.
About 30% of students with ADHD repeat one or more
Increases the release of certain neurotransmitters
Dopamine and Norepinephrine
Slow the reuptake process back into the neuron
Can suddenly and dramatically improve behaviors associated with
Tend to be taken multiple times a day
Can cause personality changes along with brain and heart
Adderall and Ritalin most popular
First choice of medication used to treat ADHD
Increase the amount of norepinephrine
Decrease ADHD symptoms for longer durations
Not as potent on the body as stimulants.
Strattera and Intuniv most popular
Helps cope with behaviors and stress within the household
Cognitive behavior therapy
Helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence
Allows individuals to explore their feelings and learn to recognize negative
patterns of behavior.
Positively affects focus and attention
Increases the levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain
Foods containing omega-3 fatty acids
Improve normal brain function and may prove particularly beneficial for
people with ADHD.
May reduce ADHD symptoms
Herbal supplements such as ginkgo or ginseng
Six or more symptoms of inattention and or hyperactivity-
impulsivity must have persisted for at least 6 months, with the onset
of symptoms present by age 12
occur in two or more environments
Reduce individuals functioning in social, academic, or occupational tasks
Not be a result from another mental disorder
Not attending to detail
Difficulty sustaining attention on tasks
Becomes sidetracked easily
Forgetful/loses objects frequently
Hyperactivity and impulsivity
Excessively loud or noisy
“Driven by a motor
Impatient/waiting for turns or gratification
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, at the
University of Basel reevaluated 92 children who had originally
been diagnosed with ADHD.
After in depth examinations of the 92 children, only 22% of
the were diagnosed with ADHD in accordance with the current
In conclusion to the study, it is believed that 62% of children
are being misdiagnosed with ADHD
“Parenting with pills”
Risk for adverse effects
Bruchmüller, Katrin. "Is ADHD Diagnosed in Accord With Diagnostic Criteria?
Over diagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosis." Katrin, Margraf,
Jürgen, Schneider, Silvia, Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology,
0022006X. Vol. 80.1 (Feb2012): 128-138. Web.
Sibley, Margaret H., "When diagnosing ADHD in young adults emphasize
informant reports, DSM items, and impairment." US: American Psychological
Association. Vol 80.6 (Dec, 2012): 1052-1061. Web.
Erik, Willcutt. "Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
symptom dimensions and subtypes." US: American Psychological Association.
Vol 121.4 (Nov, 2012): 991-1010. Web.
William, Heward. Exceptional Children. 10. 1. New Jersey: uppe saddle river,