Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  1. 1. By David Erickson
  2. 2.  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  3. 3.  “Is a persistent pattern of inattention and or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development”  First named by British doctor, Dr. George Still in 1902.  "Defect of Moral Control" disorder.  ADHD has evolved, both in name and classification  Hyperkinetic reaction of childhood (1968)  Attention deficit disorder (1980)  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (1994)  Thought to be caused by bad parenting and/or brain damage
  4. 4.  Inattentive Type  Hyperactive Impulsive Type  Combined Type
  5. 5.  Symptoms  Not paying attention to detail  Making careless mistakes  Failing to pay attention and keep on task  Being unable to follow or understand instructions  Avoiding tasks that involve effort  Being distracted or forgetful  Facts  Do not exhibit overt signs of physical hyperactivity, causing parents or teachers to overlook the possibility of ADHD  Have trouble achieving academic success.  Tend to receive treatment at a later age.  Most often diagnosed with girls  Misdiagnoses  Vision/hearing difficulties  Social Preoccupation  Anxiety
  6. 6.  Symptoms  Fidgeting  Getting up often when seated  Running or climbing at inappropriate times  Having trouble playing quietly  Talking excessively or out of turn  Interrupting  Facts  Easily noticeable for parents and teachers.  Difficulty in accepting delayed gratification.  Tend to receive treatment earlier  Most often diagnosed with boys
  7. 7.  Symptoms  Do not exhibit a distinct tendency toward either category; instead, they consistently display behaviors associated with both  Facts  Combined Type is the most common among children roughly affecting 61% of all ADHD cases.  Prevents child from processing information normally.
  8. 8.  About 3-5% of all children globally are diagnosed with ADHD  Boys are 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than girls.  ADHD tends to run in families Genetic link is stronger in twins. If one twin has ADHD there's an 82% chance the other will have it as well  ADHD is found in all cultures.  Symptoms of ADHD tend to decrease as child matures, 60% will have symptoms into adulthood.
  9. 9.  Most children with ADHD struggle in the classroom.  Score lower than their peers on IQ and achievement tests.  Remedial tutoring is often necessary.  About 30% of students with ADHD repeat one or more grades.
  10. 10.  ADHD brain function
  11. 11. Medication vs. Non-Medication
  12. 12.  Stimulants  Increases the release of certain neurotransmitters  Dopamine and Norepinephrine  Slow the reuptake process back into the neuron  Can suddenly and dramatically improve behaviors associated with ADHD.  Tend to be taken multiple times a day  Can cause personality changes along with brain and heart problems  Adderall and Ritalin most popular  First choice of medication used to treat ADHD  Non-Stimulants  Increase the amount of norepinephrine  Decrease ADHD symptoms for longer durations  Not as potent on the body as stimulants.  Strattera and Intuniv most popular
  13. 13.  Counseling  Family Therapy  Helps cope with behaviors and stress within the household  Cognitive behavior therapy  Helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors.  Psychotherapy  Allows individuals to explore their feelings and learn to recognize negative patterns of behavior.  Exercise  Positively affects focus and attention  Increases the levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain  Dietary Changes  Foods containing omega-3 fatty acids  Improve normal brain function and may prove particularly beneficial for people with ADHD.  Supplements  May reduce ADHD symptoms  Herbal supplements such as ginkgo or ginseng
  14. 14.  Six or more symptoms of inattention and or hyperactivity- impulsivity must have persisted for at least 6 months, with the onset of symptoms present by age 12  Symptoms must…..  occur in two or more environments  Reduce individuals functioning in social, academic, or occupational tasks  Not be a result from another mental disorder Inattention  Not attending to detail  Difficulty sustaining attention on tasks  Becomes sidetracked easily  Forgetful/loses objects frequently Hyperactivity and impulsivity  Fidgeting  Excessively loud or noisy  “Driven by a motor  Impatient/waiting for turns or gratification
  15. 15.  Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, at the University of Basel reevaluated 92 children who had originally been diagnosed with ADHD.  After in depth examinations of the 92 children, only 22% of the were diagnosed with ADHD in accordance with the current diagnostic criteria.  In conclusion to the study, it is believed that 62% of children are being misdiagnosed with ADHD  Effects  Over medication  “Parenting with pills”  Risk for adverse effects
  16. 16.  Bruchmüller, Katrin. "Is ADHD Diagnosed in Accord With Diagnostic Criteria? Over diagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosis." Katrin, Margraf, Jürgen, Schneider, Silvia, Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 0022006X. Vol. 80.1 (Feb2012): 128-138. Web.  Sibley, Margaret H., "When diagnosing ADHD in young adults emphasize informant reports, DSM items, and impairment." US: American Psychological Association. Vol 80.6 (Dec, 2012): 1052-1061. Web.  Erik, Willcutt. "Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes." US: American Psychological Association. Vol 121.4 (Nov, 2012): 991-1010. Web.  William, Heward. Exceptional Children. 10. 1. New Jersey: uppe saddle river, 2013. 390-397