Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Bapat low_carbon_tech_cbi india 2015

373 views

Published on

Four main low-carbon technologies for cement production are presented, namely (a) alternative fuels (AF) for kiln, (b) renewable energy alternatives, (c) increasing cement replacement by fly ash and blast furnace slag and (d) Portland limestone cement.

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

Bapat low_carbon_tech_cbi india 2015

  1. 1. LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES FOR CEMENT PRODUCTION Dr J D BAPAT Independent Professional www.drjdbapat.com Cement Business & Industry (CBI) India 2015 Conference 3-4 September 2015, Mumbai, India
  2. 2. LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES FOR CEMENT CHALLENGES: INDIAN CEMENINDUSTRY  DEPLETING FOSSIL FUEL RESERVES  SCARCITY OF RAW MATERIALS ESPECIALLY LS  INCREASING DEMAND FOR CEMENT & CONCRETE  GROWING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS LINKED TO CLIMATE CHANGE (.) 5% OF GLOBAL ANTHROPOGENIC CARBON EMISSIONS  CEMENT PRODUCTION CAPACITY ESTIMATED TO RISE FROM CURRENT (2014) 366X106 t/a TO 550X106 t/a IN 2020  WITH RISE IN PRODUCTION, CORRESPONDING INCREASE IN INDUSTRY’S ABSOLUTE ENERGY USE & CO2 EMISSIONS  IMPROVED PRODUCTION METHODS & FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CO2 EMISSIONS FROM CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS ARE HIGH ON AGENDA
  3. 3. LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES FOR CEMENT PROJECTED CEMENT INDUSTRY EMISSIONS GLOBAL billion tonnes/year • CO2 emissions from 2010 2050 • Process 1.5 2.2 • Fuel & electricity 1.3 2.5 • Transport 0.1 0.2 ________________________ • Total 2.9 4.9
  4. 4. LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES FOR CEMENT ALTERNATIVE FUELS (AF) FOR KILN  ALTERNATE FUELS (AF) FOR KILN HAVE NOT REALLY TAKEN OFF IN INDIA  PRESENT, THERMAL SUBSTITUTION RATE OR TSR: JUST 0.5-1% (.) DEVELOPED COUNTRIES TSR: 60%  CMA IDENTIFIED HAZARDOUS WASTES FOR KILN BURNING: REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW), USED TYRES, BIOMASS & PLASTIC WASTE  PLANT TO INVEST FOR NECESSARY MODIFICATIONS IN KILN SECTION (.) HENCE IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION: LONG-TERM & SUSTAINED AVAILABILITY OF AF, NEAR CEMENT PLANT  FAVORABLE GOV. POLICY INITIATIVES REQUIRED
  5. 5. LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES FOR CEMENT RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATIVES  FUTURE: SOLAR PV & WIND POWER HOLD PROMISE  MODERN 1 MTPA CEMENT PLANT REQUIRES ABOUT 15 MW INSTALLED CAPACITY OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY  HIGHER RENEWABLE ENERGY RATES ACHIEVED IF OLDER, SMALLER CAPACITY WIND TURBINES ARE REPLACED BY MODERN HIGHER CAPACITY WIND TURBINES & ERECTING SOLAR PV SYSTEMS ON THE SAME SITE. EXAMPLE: USED MINES  WIND & SOLAR POWER HAVE ADVANTAGE OF ‘BANKING’ & ‘WHEELING’: FEEDING POWER INTO THE NATIONAL ELECTRICITY GRID AT ONE LOCATION (BANKING), TO USE IT LATER AT DIFFERENT LOCATION (WHEELING)  MAJOR REASON FOR VERY FEW SOLAR PV INSTALLATIONS IS PRICE CONSTRAINT & REQUIREMENT OF LARGE AREA  PRESENT SOLAR PV POWER IS NEARLY THREE TIMES COSTLIER IN COMPARISON WITH COAL BASED POWER
  6. 6. LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES FOR CEMENT INCREASING CEMENT REPLACEMENT BY FA & BFS  NEW GRINDING TECHNOLOGIES LEADING TO HIGHER REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY FA & BFS IN BLENDED CEMENT, WITH IMPROVED PERFORMANCE, SHOULD BE WELCOME  INDIAN STANDARDS ALLOW MAX 35% FA & 70% BFS IN CEMENT  HIGHER REPLACEMENT NOT COMPROMISING EARLY STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT IS POSSIBLE THROUGH MECHANICAL ACTIVATION  ENERGETICALLY MODIFIED CEMENT (EMC): ACTIVATION DONE THROUGH SIZE REDUCTION IN VIBRATORY OR ATTRITION MILL  MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED FA UPTO 65% & BFS UPTO 50-85%  ELECTRICAL ENERGY FOR MECHANICAL ACTIVATION: 30-50 kWh/t  VIEW IN COMPARISON WITH THERMAL & ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVINGS ACCRUED DUE TO HIGHER FA OR SLAG REPLACEMENT  EMC CEMENT CO., NEAR JEWETT, TEXAS, USA, PRODUCES CEMENT & POZZOLANA WITH COMMERCIALIZED TECHNOLOGY BASED ON MECHANICAL ACTIVATION (.) PLANT STARTED IN SEPT. 2004, WITH CAPACITY: 1,50,000 t/a, CAN BE INCREASED TO MEET DEMAND
  7. 7. LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES FOR CEMENT PORTLAND LIMESTONE CEMENT (PLC)  PLC: MODIFIED VERSION OF PC:IMPROVES ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT & GIVES COMPARABLE PERFORMANCE  IS269-2013: PERMITS ADDITION OF LS UP TO 5% AS PERFORMANCE IMPROVER  EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 197-1: 5% LS PERMITTED IN ALL 27 TYPES, AS MINOR ADDITIONAL CONSTITUENT (MAC)  OUT OF THAT, 4 ARE PLC, PERMITTING HIGHER ADDITIONS OF LS, IN ADDITION TO 5% AS MAC  CEM II/A-L & CEM II/A-LL: 6-20% LS & CEM II/B-L & CEM II/B-LL: 21-35% LS  ASTM C595 & AASHTO M240: PLC MAY CONTAIN 5-15% LS
  8. 8. LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES FOR CEMENT MANUFACTURING PLC  CAN BE MANUFACTURED AT ANY PC MANUFACTURING PLANT  CRUSHED & DRIED LS WEIGH-FED TO FINISH MILL ALONG WITH CLINKER & GYPSUM  LS, BEING SOFTER, IS MORE EASILY GROUND THAN HARDER CLINKER & GETS CONCENTRATED IN FINE PARTICLE FRACTION  OVERALL FINENESS MUST BE HIGH, FOR GOOD PERFORMANCE  GRINDING TIME INCREASED TO BRING FINENESS OF CLINKER SIMILAR TO OPC (.) HENCE PRODUCTION RATE IS SLOWED & ADDITIONAL GRINDING ENERGY IS REQUIRED  IT IS OFFSET BY LOWER CLINKER CONTENT & KILN FUEL SAVINGS  ADDITION OF GRINDING AIDS IMPROVES MILL PERFORMANCE  GRINDING IMPROVES PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION & HYDRATION ENHANCED BY PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL INTERACTION
  9. 9. LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES FOR CEMENT PORTLAND LIMESTONE CEMENT (PLC) SUMMARY  LS CEMENTS HAVE BEEN USED IN MANY COUNTRIES SINCE 1960’S & EU CEM II/A 6 TO 20% LS CEMENTS ARE THE LARGEST SINGLE TYPE OF CEMENT CURRENTLY PRODUCED IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES  LS FINENESS & PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ARE KEY PARAMETRS ADVANTAGES:  PLC RESULTS IN REDUCED GHG EMISSIONS  WHEN PROPERLY OPTIMISED, PLC CONCRETE HAS FRESH PROPERTIES, BLEEDING & STRENGTH SIMILAR TO OPC CONCRETE  REDUCED PERMEABILITY  SIMILAR CHLORIDE DURABILITY UP TO 15% REPLACEMENT  SIMILAR CARBONATION RATE UP TO 15% REPLACEMENT, AT LOW w/c RATIO  SUBSTANTIALLY IMPROVED SULPHATE RESISTANCE, WHEN PLC UP TO 15% LS, IS BLENDED WITH SLAG WITH 50% REPLACEMENT DISADVANTAGE:  PERFORMANCE IS AFFECTED BY (A) QUALITY OF LS, (B) WHETHER INTERGROUND OR BLENDED & (C) PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION
  10. 10. JOIN MY NETWORK YOU ARE WELCOME TO JOIN ME  FACEBOOK: Jayant D Bapat  TWITTER: @cemcretecon & @drjdbapat  LINKEDIN: Dr J. D. Bapat (email: jdbapat@yahoo.co.in)  EMAIL_1: consult@drjdbapat.com  EMAIL_2: consult.bapat@yahoo.com URL: http://www.drjdbapat.com
  11. 11. Thanks!!!

×