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A COUNTRY OF CITIES
VISHAAN CHAKRABARTI
AMERICA’S MOST LETHAL EXPORT: THE SUBURB
OF HIGHWAYS,
HOUSES, AND
HEDGES
RATE OF LAND USE= 2 x POPULATION GROWTH
11 MILLION+ AMERICANS ARE UNDERWATER
AT WHAT DENSITIES DO AMERICANS LIVE?
ANNUAL FEDERAL INFRASTRUCTURE BUDGET
ANNUAL FEDERAL ENERGY SUBSIDIES
THE MORTGAGE INTEREST DEDUCTION IS
OUR LARGEST FEDERAL SUBSIDY
AMERICA’S OUTSTANDING MORTGAGE DEBT,
1960-2010
WHY
CITIES
ARE
GOOD
PROSPERITY
AND
GLOBALIZATION
JANE JACOBS’S THEORY OF IMPORT
REPLACEMENT IN CITIES
DOCTOROFF’S VIRTUOUS CYCLE OF THE
SUCCESSFUL CITY
WHERE AMERICAN PROSPERITY IS PRODUCED
AMERICAN CITIES ARE MORE PRODUCTIVE
THAN THE VAST MAJORITY OF STATES
AMERICAN MODEL VS. CITY-STATE MODEL
SUSTAINABILITY
AND RESILIENCE
BILL MCKIBBEN:
GLOBAL WARMING’S TERRIFYING NEW MATH
placeholder: this
is not
sustainability
THIS IS NOT SUSTAINABILITY
ENERGY CONSUMPTION AVERAGES BY
HOUSEHOLD TYPE
SUSTAINABILITY = DENSITY
THE WORLD’S POPULATION
COULD FIT IN TEXAS
If you love nature,
don’t live in it.
HYPERDENSITY LEAVES NATURE NATURAL
HEALTH AND JOY
ARCHITECTURE TRIES TO TAME THE CITY
NATIONAL HOMICIDE RATES
PER 100,000 RESIDENTS
COMMUTING DISTANCE AFFECTS
PREVALENCE OF OBESITY
ROMANCE AND COMMUTING TIME
OUR MOST DANGEROUS ACTIVITY
THE ADVANTAGES OF MASS TRANSIT
AND WALKABILITY
CITIES APPEAL TO YOUNG PROFESSIONALS
NEW URBAN PARKS
Frank Gehry Nelson Byrd Woltz The Office of James Burnett
KNOWLEDGE AND CULTURE
OMA Foster + Partners Morphosis
NEW URBAN WATERFRONTS
SHoP Architects
HOW TO
BUILD
GOOD
CITIES
BUILDING
HYPERDENSITY
AND CIVIC
DELIGHT
STEREOTYPES OF HYPERDENSITY
A MODEL FOR THE FUTURE?
placeholder:
densities needed
to support rapid
mass transit
DEFINING HYPERDENSITY
DENSIFICATION AROUND
RAIL-BASED TRANSIT
HYPERDENSITY CAN BE BEAUTIFUL
SHoP Architects NADAAA Stanley Saitowitz
THE HIGH LINE PARK
DS+R, Field Operations
PRESERVATION OF LIGHT AND AIR THROUGH
FLOOR AREA TRANSFER
NEW DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE HIGH LINE
HOW TO BUILD THE HIGH-LOW CITY
HYPERDENSE LONDON
BUILDING AN
INFRASTRUCTURE
OF OPPORTUNITY
DENSITY FOR DENSITY’S SAKE
DEFINING AN INFRASTRUCTURE
OF OPPORTUNITY
PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS
HUDSON YARDS
EXTENDING THE #7 SUBWAY LINE
HUDSON YARDS
BUILDING THE
EQUITABLE CITY
SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC HOUSING
DEFINING AFFORDABILITY
1986-TODAY: HOUSING TAX CREDIT SYSTEM
LAND COSTS GET AMORTIZED OVER
INCREASED DENSITY
MODULAR CONSTRUCTION: A POTENTIAL
NEW MODEL FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING
IN A COUNTRY OF CITIES: HYPERDENSE
DEVELOPMENTS AND AMENITIES
OF TRAINS,
TOWERS, AND
TREES
TODAY: A COUNTRY OF HIGHWAYS, HOUSES,
AND HEDGES
TOMORROW: A COUNTRY OF TRAINS,
TOWERS, AND TREES
HYPERDENSE DENVER
HYPERDENSE CHARLOTTE?
HYPERDENSE DALLAS?
CONNECTION TO THE TRINITY RIVER?
EXTEND THE CITY
EXTEND THE LANDSCAPE
HYPERDENSITY // HYPERLANDSCAPE
HYPERDENSITY // HYPERLANDSCAPE
HYPERDENSE BROOKLYN
BARCLAY’S CENTER
ARCHITECTURE
TRANSIT-BASED
MODULAR
placeholder:
better barclay’s
images
VARIATION
CIVIC DELIGHT
THE HUB AND SPOKE ANACHRONISM
NETWORK OF LIVE-WORK NEIGHBORHOODS
WILLIAMSBURG BRIDGE BOOKENDS
ESSEX CROSSING
ANDY WARHOL MUSEUM
SECTIONAL STRATEGY
MARKET CONCEPT
URBAN SECTION
MARKET
DOMINO: EXISTING
PREVIOUS SCHEME
GET TALLER AND SLENDER
GET POROUS FOR LIGHT AND AIR
GET RESILIENT
GET SPECTACULAR WATERFRONT
GET MATERIAL
GET MIXED USE
GET AFFORDABLE
GET APPROVED!!!
THE HYPERDENSE CITY OF CULTURE & EQUITY
SITES + SERVICES
A HYBRID MODEL FOR RIO DE JANEIRO
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, PRESERVATION, AND PLANNING
SPRING 2014 MSRED/MARCH STUDIO | VISHAAN CHAKRABARTI + HILARY SAMPLE + SHAWN AMSLER
RIO DE JANEIRO
•	 Total population 2010: 18,171,711
•	 Rio de Janeiro: 6,323,037
•	 Metro area: 11,848,674
•	 Density: 4,781 km2
•	 2nd largest contributor to GDP
•	 22% of the total population lives in favelas.
•	 1,071 Favelas according to the 2010
census
•	 Affordable Housing Crisis
FAVELAS IN RIO DE JANEIRO
SUMMARY
Favelas and High Rise Housing in Rio de Janeiro
FAVELA CHARACTERISTICS
•	 Neighborhoods that emerge from a need for housing
•	 Established and developed without external or government
regulation
•	 Their original blueprint established and developed organically and
by residents themselves
•	 Continuously evolving based on culture, access to resources and
jobs
•	 Run by Residents Associations
•	 No legal protection to the ‘property owners’/no access to secure
land tenure 
•	 Limited upward mobility in the formal sector
•	 Health/Safety/Welfare – no enforcement of building codes, drugs/
gangs/violence is a continuing issue, and militias have a strong-
hold on the residents’ welfare
•	 Gentrification leads to rising rents and displacement; UPPs have
increased safety in many favelas, further amplifying price increases
FAVELAS TODAY
Rio das Pedras 2014
FAVELAS IN BRAZIL
•	 1937: Federal District Building Code: favelas are declared illegal
and announced demolition
•	 1950s-80s: State and Church sponsor favelas improvements
•	 1982-1990:
•	 Brizola Administration several infrastructure upgrades are
undertaken (water & sewage hookups, trash collection, public
lighting)
•	 Cada Familia, Um Lote: land regularization-14,000 lots
•	 Mid 90s: IDB creates urban upgrade program “Favela Barrio.”
Infrastructure investments worth US 600mn
•	 Programa Morar Legal: regularization of 24,000 households
•	 Today: 3rd phase of IBD’s program “Morar Carioc”, which aims to
upgrade all favelas in Rio by 2020
•	 Initialroundonlycovers30favelasinRioand6irregularsettlements
through a 150 million loan
HISTORICAL APPROACHES
Rio das Pedras 2014
DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS
MONTHLY INCOME PER CAPITA
•	 Urbanization Rate
•	 Growth of domestic consumer class & rise
of credit usage
•	 Vehicle registration up 21%
•	 Growth of middle class
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74
75-79
80+
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Do Rocha 237
Santa Cruz 308
Da Mare 394
Rocihna 408
Barra Tijuca 524
Barrier Vasco 528
Humaita Botanical Gardens 635
Urca 693
Average for Favelas 383
(A) 3.5%
(B) 3.6%
(C) 41.1%
(D) 21.6%
(E) 30.2%
5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
100
95-99
90-94
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4
Age
5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
100
95-99
90-94
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4
Age
Percentage of PopulationPercentage of Population
(A) 5.3%
(B) 6.4%
(C) 55.3%
(D) 16.6%
(E) 16.4%
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74
75-79
80+
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Do Rocha 237
Santa Cruz 308
Da Mare 394
Rocihna 408
Barra Tijuca 524
Barrier Vasco 528
Humaita Botanical Gardens 635
Urca 693
Average for Favelas 383
(A) 3.5%
(B) 3.6%
(C) 41.1%
(D) 21.6%
(E) 30.2%
5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
100
95-99
90-94
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4
Age
5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
100
95-99
90-94
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4
Age
Percentage of PopulationPercentage of Population
(A) 5.3%
(B) 6.4%
(C) 55.3%
(D) 16.6%
(E) 16.4%
HIGHLIGHTS
AGE DISTRIBUTION
RIO DE JANEIRO (EXCLUDING FAVELAS) FAVELAS IN RIO DE JANEIRO
HOUSEHOLD DISTRIBUTION
SOCIAL MOBILITY: RISE OF THE MIDDLE CLASS
Rio das Pedras 2014
SITE
AMBEV SITE
RIO DAS PEDRAS SITE
RIO DAS PEDRAS
AMBEV
RIO DAS PEDRAS
70.9 Hectares
81,000 Residents est.
3 Public schools
7 K-4 Private schools
2 Day facilities
1 Resident’s Association office
1 Public plaza
1 Health center
1 Community health station
1 Mobile library
6 Soccer fields
1 Public safety trailer
Rio das Pedras 2014
Rio das Pedras 2014
RIO DAS PEDRAS: LESSONS LEARNED
•	 Learning from Rio das Pedras
•	 Affordability
•	 Mixed-use
•	 High density to support community, commercial and transit
•	 Pedestrian-oriented
•	 High use of bicycles and public transportation
•	 Organic, incremental architecture
•	 Strong community networks and exchange between residents
•	 Entrepreneurial
•	 Areas of Opportunity/Improvement
•	 Additional open space & recreation
•	 Community facilities
•	 Safer construction methods
•	 Public health
•	 Education
•	 Sanitation
Rio das Pedras 2014
Rio das Pedras 2014
AMBEV
AMBEV
RIO DAS PEDRAS
28.5 Hectares of vacant land
Factory partially still in
operation
AMBEV Site
AMBEV Site
MINHA CASA MINHA VIDA: PLANNED FOR AMBEV SITE
•	 Primary affordable housing program at a federal level.
•	 Government has promised to deliver millions of units within the
current presidency.
•	 Residents given voucher to purchase housing.
•	 Shortcomings:
•	 Mono-Use Residential
•	 Low Density Housing
•	 Restrictive in design
•	 Public gathering spaces are poorly designed, if not lacking
completely.
•	 Developments are often located far from sources of
employment
•	 Lack adequate public transport access
•	 Quality vs. Quantity - Government less concerned with
construction quality. New developments located in virtually
worthless land.
•	 All these factors often lead to failed developments, where new
communities are afflicted by high vacancy, credit loss or crime. The
Minha Casa Minha Vida Program fails to recognize and replicate
the positive conditions of informal settlements, proposing overly-
formalized housing communities. This model of development often
leads to housing stock which depreciates, rather than appreciates
over time.
MINHA CASA MINHA VIDA PROJECT
WHAT IS SITES AND SERVICES?
•	 Government provides and prepares land with essential
infrastructure needed for habitation
•	 Prepared plots sold or leased to beneficiaries
•	 Beneficiaries use their own resources to construct their homes
•	 Basic Infrastructure - Supplied by Government
•	 Water Supply
•	 Electrical Service
•	 Sewage System
•	 Storm Drainage
•	 Street Lighting
•	 Access to infrastructure - Supplied by Government
•	 Each plot set up to connect to water, power, sewer
•	 PlannedCommunityServices&Facilities-SuppliedbyGovernment
•	 Schools
•	 Health Centers
•	 Community Centers
•	 Playgrounds/Recreation/Open Space
•	 Security post
•	 Bus shelters
INCREMENTAL GROWTH STRATEGY
INFRASTRUCTURE
PROPOSAL
Community
Land Trust
Individuals Government
Land
$$/Year
Infrastructure
Builds Frame
Option to Buy Frame
Phased
Payments $/
Yr
Voucher available for affordability
COMMUNITY LAND TRUST
Community
Land Trust
Government
Gives land to CLT
Pays installments to offset infrastructure costs
Builds
Infrastructure
Sewage
Roads
Electricity
Water
Provides
Services
Security
Education
Health
Library Recreation Community
Center
Waste
SESC
Build Housing
Frames
Governing
Board
Hold Title
to Land
ResidentsJoin CLT
Maintenance
Stabilize
Values
$
AMBEV
SITE
Define
Guidelines
Collaborates with SESC to provide adtl. services
MASTER PLAN PROPOSAL
34
5724
5688
33
18
140
208
210
522
601
5560
276
4940
182
5500
253
451
195
152
135
72
132
361
MORRO DO PINHEIRO
MORRO DO PINHEIRO
(BTE)MORRO DA PANELA
(BTE)MORRO DA PANELA
(BTE)
MORRO DA PANELA
(BTE)
MORRO DA PANELA
13
19
4
3
3
7
1
2
2
12
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
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1
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1
3
1
1
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3
3
3
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2
2
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1
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22
3
1
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LT 18 Q F
LT 16 Q F
LT 15 Q F
LT 14 Q F
LT 13 Q F
LT 12 Q F
LT 11 Q F
LT 10 Q F
LT 09 Q F
LT 08 Q F
LT 07 Q F
LT 06 Q F
LT 05 Q F
LT 04 Q F
LT 03 Q F
LT 02 Q F
LT 01 Q F
LT04QE
LT05QE
LT06QE
LT07QE
LT08QE
LT09QE
LT10QE
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LT 17 QD D
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LT 14 QD D
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LT 12 QD D
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LT 5 QD D
LT 4 QD D
LT3QD
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LT 37 QD D
LT 38 QD D
LT 40 QD D
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LT 43 QD D
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L 2
PAL 30729
Q II
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PAL 30729
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CONDOMÍNIO
FLORESTAAM
ESQUILOS
BOSQUE DOS
CONDOMÍNIO
CONDOMÍNIO
BOSQUE DOS
ESQUILOS
CONDOMÍNIO
BOSQUE DOS
ESQUILOS
CONDOMÍNIO
CAPIM MELADO
CONDOMÍNIO
ALDEIA
ALDEIA
CONDOMÍNIO
NOVOS RUMOS
CONDOMÍNIO
CONDOMÍNIO
VILA HELENA
CONDOMÍNIO DA DELFIM
CONDOMÍNIO DA DELFIM
CONDOMíNIO
VILAGE DA
FLORESTA
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55C02
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85C01
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Escola
de
Área
Parque
de
Área
a Escola
Destinada
Área
POSTO GAS.
GAS.
POSTO
F
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087
37.8 ha
77.55 ha
•	 2 Primary Schools for 800 students each
(50,000 sf / 4,645 sqm)
•	 2 Kindergartens (3,000 sf / 270 sqm)
•	 2 Pre-schools (2,000 sf / 186 sqm)
•	 1 Health Center for 50,000 to 80,000 people
(40,000 sf / 3,716 sqm)
•	 1 Community Center (Converted factory/SESC)
•	 Playgrounds/Recreation/Open Space
(4.8 hectares)
•	 1 Security post Incorporated into Community Facility
•	 Day-care Facilities (Incorporated into Commercial)
Residential &
Commercial
53%
Open Space
15%
Circulation
25%
Health Facilities
1%Schools
6%
AMBEV Site = 32.5 ha
Land Use
LAND USE
AMBEV Site= 32.5 ha
PROGRAM
MASTER PLAN INFRASTRUCTURE & GRID
Lot: 4m x 12m
Building Footprint: 4m x 8m
36 Lots per 24 m x 64 m block
Primary
Commercial
Coorridor
4 Lanes
22m wide
Secondary
Roads
1 lane
6m wide
Housing Unit Framework:
Basic Frame with utility wall for
each plot with connect to water,
power, sewer
(1 per unit/$3,600 per unit)
Roads
Water
632 Sq M/per block
$28,500 USD/per block
220 M/per block
$105,000 USD/per block
Sewage
220 M/per block
$160,000 USD/per block
Electricity
128 M/per block
$43,200 USD/per block
Stormwater
Mgmt
Streetlamps
72 M/per block
$7,200
4 lights/per block
$2,100
CASE STUDY: ELEMENTAL
Limited resources for affordable housing are invested to build half of
a good house, rather than a full house with poor construction. The
savings in construction are reinvested towards a site which is more
strategically located with a higher-land value. A better Location should
permit the property to appreciate in time, rather than depreciate.
The user will respond to this ‘half-house’ by wanting to expand it over
time. The design accommodates for this incremental growth with
an adjacent void, mitigating the risk of structural failure and over-
crowdedness.
The units are built with cheap prefabricated concrete panels and
assembled on site and left virtually ‘raw’, with limited finishes. Users
then self-improve their homes, selecting the tiling or exterior paint
color to their liking.
STRATEGY
INCREMENTAL GROWTH
SELF CUSTOMIZED
Elemental Project
Elemental Project
BUILDING TYPOLOGY
1 Unit
4m x 8m (13 ft x 26 ft)
32 sqm (344 sqft)
$3,424 USD R$7,670
1 Unit Expansion
8m x 8m (26 ft x 26 ft)
64 sqm (688 sqft)
$5,136 USD R$11,504
2 Units shown with shared expansion
8m x 4m + 4m x 4m
48 sqm (516 sqft)
$6,848 USD R$15,340
Utilities Unit A Unit B
Utilities Unit A Unit B Commerical Rear Yard
1 Unit
4m x 8m (13 ft x 26 ft)
32 sqm (344 sqft)
$3,424 USD R$7,670
1 Unit Expansion
8m x 8m (26 ft x 26 ft)
64 sqm (688 sqft)
$5,136 USD R$11,504
2 Units shown with shared expansion
8m x 4m + 4m x 4m
48 sqm (516 sqft)
$6,848 USD R$15,340
Utilities Unit A Unit B
Utilities Unit A Unit B Commerical Rear Yard
UNITS CONNECT ON THE BLOCK
AMBEV SITE: PHASE 1
AMBEV SITE: PHASE 2
AMBEV SITE: PHASE 3
AMBEV SITE: PHASE 4
PHASING
PHASE
1 Constuction & Sell
1 Permanent Bond
455 Units/Yr
Refinanced Balance: $7.9 mn - Minimum Debt Payment/Month/Unit: $30.40 (R$68.1)
Bond Payoff
2 Construction & Sell
Initial Balance: $20.34 mn
2 Permanent Bond
581 Units/Yr
Refinanced Balance: $6.10 mn - Minimum Debt Payment/Month/Unit: $23.24 (R$52.05)
Bond Payoff
3 Construction & Sell
Initital Balance: $18.71 mn
3 Permanent Bond
553 Units/Yr
Refinanced Balance: $5.46 mn - Minimum Debt Payment/Month/Unit: $22.61 (R$50.65) Bond Payoff
4 Construction & Sell
Initital Balance: $23.63 mn
4 Permanent Bond
577 Units/Yr
Refinanced Balance: $7.13 mn - Minimum Debt Payment/Month/Unit: $27.14 (R$60.79)
Bond Payoff
Assumptions
CLT Bond Financing Rate: 9%
Permanent Bond Term: 20 years
CLT Buy-In Per Unit:
Initial Balance: $20.58 mn
8,577$
20542014 2019 2024 2029 2034 2039 2044 2049
PHASING MODEL
CLT REVENUE STREAM
R$92 per unit
25% of monthly housing expense
Revenue R$2,638,950
8% credit loss (R$204,433)
30% operations & maintenance (R$791,694)
Infrastructure Debt Service (R$1,379,059)
Balance R$257,108
$$$
$
$
$
CLT
FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
Pays installments to
offset infrastructure
costs
INCOME + HOUSING AFFORDABILITY
RDP Area Average median
income per capita per month
R$ 543
R$ 1,222:
Per Household or unit
2.25
Income earners per household
30% of Income on Housing =
$367 per month
R$367.00
-92.00
-45.00
=229.89
CLT
Utilities PV = R$9,247.67
Micro-Loan Payment
30%
FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
PUBLIC SUBSIDY
Government provides land cost
per unit
R$3,033
Subsidy level differs per income bracket
Voucher system for houses with lower
levels of income
9%Interest Rate on Bond
R$8,739
per unit
R$ 19,214:
“Buy In” Unit Cost
Up to
PUBLIC SUBSIDY
PHASING
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Total
Start Year 2,014 2,019 2,023 2,027 -
Size sq m 65,000 65,000 60,000 65,000 255,000
Size Acres 16.1 16.1 14.8 16.1 63.0
Size Hectares 6.5 6.5 6.0 6.5 25.5
Infr. As % of Total housing expense 17% 12% 12% 12% 0%
Total Persons 9,068 9,068 8,342 9,068 35,545
Total Units 2,400 2,400 2,208 2,400 9,408
CONCLUSION
Sites & Services approach with a Community
Land Trust ownership model
•	 Replicates the positive attributes of favela-
like incremental growth
•	 Legitimizes ownership structure
•	 Provides adequate health/safety/welfare
services
•	 Ensures long-term affordability and access
to land and housing for those who need it
most
Rio das Pedras 2014

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Vishaan chakrabarti

  • 1. A COUNTRY OF CITIES VISHAAN CHAKRABARTI
  • 2. AMERICA’S MOST LETHAL EXPORT: THE SUBURB
  • 4. RATE OF LAND USE= 2 x POPULATION GROWTH
  • 5. 11 MILLION+ AMERICANS ARE UNDERWATER
  • 6. AT WHAT DENSITIES DO AMERICANS LIVE?
  • 9. THE MORTGAGE INTEREST DEDUCTION IS OUR LARGEST FEDERAL SUBSIDY
  • 13. JANE JACOBS’S THEORY OF IMPORT REPLACEMENT IN CITIES
  • 14. DOCTOROFF’S VIRTUOUS CYCLE OF THE SUCCESSFUL CITY
  • 15.
  • 17. AMERICAN CITIES ARE MORE PRODUCTIVE THAN THE VAST MAJORITY OF STATES
  • 18. AMERICAN MODEL VS. CITY-STATE MODEL
  • 20. BILL MCKIBBEN: GLOBAL WARMING’S TERRIFYING NEW MATH
  • 22. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AVERAGES BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE
  • 25. If you love nature, don’t live in it.
  • 28. ARCHITECTURE TRIES TO TAME THE CITY
  • 29. NATIONAL HOMICIDE RATES PER 100,000 RESIDENTS
  • 32. OUR MOST DANGEROUS ACTIVITY
  • 33. THE ADVANTAGES OF MASS TRANSIT AND WALKABILITY
  • 34. CITIES APPEAL TO YOUNG PROFESSIONALS
  • 35. NEW URBAN PARKS Frank Gehry Nelson Byrd Woltz The Office of James Burnett
  • 36. KNOWLEDGE AND CULTURE OMA Foster + Partners Morphosis
  • 41. A MODEL FOR THE FUTURE?
  • 42. placeholder: densities needed to support rapid mass transit DEFINING HYPERDENSITY
  • 44. HYPERDENSITY CAN BE BEAUTIFUL SHoP Architects NADAAA Stanley Saitowitz
  • 45. THE HIGH LINE PARK DS+R, Field Operations
  • 46. PRESERVATION OF LIGHT AND AIR THROUGH FLOOR AREA TRANSFER
  • 47. NEW DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE HIGH LINE
  • 48. HOW TO BUILD THE HIGH-LOW CITY
  • 55. EXTENDING THE #7 SUBWAY LINE
  • 60. 1986-TODAY: HOUSING TAX CREDIT SYSTEM
  • 61. LAND COSTS GET AMORTIZED OVER INCREASED DENSITY
  • 62. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION: A POTENTIAL NEW MODEL FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING
  • 63. IN A COUNTRY OF CITIES: HYPERDENSE DEVELOPMENTS AND AMENITIES
  • 65. TODAY: A COUNTRY OF HIGHWAYS, HOUSES, AND HEDGES
  • 66. TOMORROW: A COUNTRY OF TRAINS, TOWERS, AND TREES
  • 70. CONNECTION TO THE TRINITY RIVER?
  • 82. THE HUB AND SPOKE ANACHRONISM
  • 83. NETWORK OF LIVE-WORK NEIGHBORHOODS
  • 93. GET TALLER AND SLENDER
  • 94. GET POROUS FOR LIGHT AND AIR
  • 101. THE HYPERDENSE CITY OF CULTURE & EQUITY
  • 102. SITES + SERVICES A HYBRID MODEL FOR RIO DE JANEIRO COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, PRESERVATION, AND PLANNING SPRING 2014 MSRED/MARCH STUDIO | VISHAAN CHAKRABARTI + HILARY SAMPLE + SHAWN AMSLER
  • 103. RIO DE JANEIRO • Total population 2010: 18,171,711 • Rio de Janeiro: 6,323,037 • Metro area: 11,848,674 • Density: 4,781 km2 • 2nd largest contributor to GDP • 22% of the total population lives in favelas. • 1,071 Favelas according to the 2010 census • Affordable Housing Crisis FAVELAS IN RIO DE JANEIRO SUMMARY Favelas and High Rise Housing in Rio de Janeiro
  • 104. FAVELA CHARACTERISTICS • Neighborhoods that emerge from a need for housing • Established and developed without external or government regulation • Their original blueprint established and developed organically and by residents themselves • Continuously evolving based on culture, access to resources and jobs • Run by Residents Associations • No legal protection to the ‘property owners’/no access to secure land tenure  • Limited upward mobility in the formal sector • Health/Safety/Welfare – no enforcement of building codes, drugs/ gangs/violence is a continuing issue, and militias have a strong- hold on the residents’ welfare • Gentrification leads to rising rents and displacement; UPPs have increased safety in many favelas, further amplifying price increases FAVELAS TODAY Rio das Pedras 2014
  • 105. FAVELAS IN BRAZIL • 1937: Federal District Building Code: favelas are declared illegal and announced demolition • 1950s-80s: State and Church sponsor favelas improvements • 1982-1990: • Brizola Administration several infrastructure upgrades are undertaken (water & sewage hookups, trash collection, public lighting) • Cada Familia, Um Lote: land regularization-14,000 lots • Mid 90s: IDB creates urban upgrade program “Favela Barrio.” Infrastructure investments worth US 600mn • Programa Morar Legal: regularization of 24,000 households • Today: 3rd phase of IBD’s program “Morar Carioc”, which aims to upgrade all favelas in Rio by 2020 • Initialroundonlycovers30favelasinRioand6irregularsettlements through a 150 million loan HISTORICAL APPROACHES Rio das Pedras 2014
  • 106. DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS MONTHLY INCOME PER CAPITA • Urbanization Rate • Growth of domestic consumer class & rise of credit usage • Vehicle registration up 21% • Growth of middle class 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Do Rocha 237 Santa Cruz 308 Da Mare 394 Rocihna 408 Barra Tijuca 524 Barrier Vasco 528 Humaita Botanical Gardens 635 Urca 693 Average for Favelas 383 (A) 3.5% (B) 3.6% (C) 41.1% (D) 21.6% (E) 30.2% 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 100 95-99 90-94 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Age 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 100 95-99 90-94 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Age Percentage of PopulationPercentage of Population (A) 5.3% (B) 6.4% (C) 55.3% (D) 16.6% (E) 16.4% 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Do Rocha 237 Santa Cruz 308 Da Mare 394 Rocihna 408 Barra Tijuca 524 Barrier Vasco 528 Humaita Botanical Gardens 635 Urca 693 Average for Favelas 383 (A) 3.5% (B) 3.6% (C) 41.1% (D) 21.6% (E) 30.2% 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 100 95-99 90-94 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Age 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 100 95-99 90-94 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Age Percentage of PopulationPercentage of Population (A) 5.3% (B) 6.4% (C) 55.3% (D) 16.6% (E) 16.4% HIGHLIGHTS AGE DISTRIBUTION RIO DE JANEIRO (EXCLUDING FAVELAS) FAVELAS IN RIO DE JANEIRO HOUSEHOLD DISTRIBUTION SOCIAL MOBILITY: RISE OF THE MIDDLE CLASS Rio das Pedras 2014
  • 107. SITE AMBEV SITE RIO DAS PEDRAS SITE
  • 108. RIO DAS PEDRAS AMBEV RIO DAS PEDRAS 70.9 Hectares 81,000 Residents est. 3 Public schools 7 K-4 Private schools 2 Day facilities 1 Resident’s Association office 1 Public plaza 1 Health center 1 Community health station 1 Mobile library 6 Soccer fields 1 Public safety trailer Rio das Pedras 2014 Rio das Pedras 2014
  • 109. RIO DAS PEDRAS: LESSONS LEARNED • Learning from Rio das Pedras • Affordability • Mixed-use • High density to support community, commercial and transit • Pedestrian-oriented • High use of bicycles and public transportation • Organic, incremental architecture • Strong community networks and exchange between residents • Entrepreneurial • Areas of Opportunity/Improvement • Additional open space & recreation • Community facilities • Safer construction methods • Public health • Education • Sanitation Rio das Pedras 2014 Rio das Pedras 2014
  • 110. AMBEV AMBEV RIO DAS PEDRAS 28.5 Hectares of vacant land Factory partially still in operation AMBEV Site AMBEV Site
  • 111. MINHA CASA MINHA VIDA: PLANNED FOR AMBEV SITE • Primary affordable housing program at a federal level. • Government has promised to deliver millions of units within the current presidency. • Residents given voucher to purchase housing. • Shortcomings: • Mono-Use Residential • Low Density Housing • Restrictive in design • Public gathering spaces are poorly designed, if not lacking completely. • Developments are often located far from sources of employment • Lack adequate public transport access • Quality vs. Quantity - Government less concerned with construction quality. New developments located in virtually worthless land. • All these factors often lead to failed developments, where new communities are afflicted by high vacancy, credit loss or crime. The Minha Casa Minha Vida Program fails to recognize and replicate the positive conditions of informal settlements, proposing overly- formalized housing communities. This model of development often leads to housing stock which depreciates, rather than appreciates over time. MINHA CASA MINHA VIDA PROJECT
  • 112. WHAT IS SITES AND SERVICES? • Government provides and prepares land with essential infrastructure needed for habitation • Prepared plots sold or leased to beneficiaries • Beneficiaries use their own resources to construct their homes • Basic Infrastructure - Supplied by Government • Water Supply • Electrical Service • Sewage System • Storm Drainage • Street Lighting • Access to infrastructure - Supplied by Government • Each plot set up to connect to water, power, sewer • PlannedCommunityServices&Facilities-SuppliedbyGovernment • Schools • Health Centers • Community Centers • Playgrounds/Recreation/Open Space • Security post • Bus shelters INCREMENTAL GROWTH STRATEGY INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 113. PROPOSAL Community Land Trust Individuals Government Land $$/Year Infrastructure Builds Frame Option to Buy Frame Phased Payments $/ Yr Voucher available for affordability
  • 114. COMMUNITY LAND TRUST Community Land Trust Government Gives land to CLT Pays installments to offset infrastructure costs Builds Infrastructure Sewage Roads Electricity Water Provides Services Security Education Health Library Recreation Community Center Waste SESC Build Housing Frames Governing Board Hold Title to Land ResidentsJoin CLT Maintenance Stabilize Values $ AMBEV SITE Define Guidelines Collaborates with SESC to provide adtl. services
  • 115. MASTER PLAN PROPOSAL 34 5724 5688 33 18 140 208 210 522 601 5560 276 4940 182 5500 253 451 195 152 135 72 132 361 MORRO DO PINHEIRO MORRO DO PINHEIRO (BTE)MORRO DA PANELA (BTE)MORRO DA PANELA (BTE) MORRO DA PANELA (BTE) MORRO DA PANELA 13 19 4 3 3 7 1 2 2 12 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 22 3 1 1 2 PP-260 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 LT 18 Q F LT 16 Q F LT 15 Q F LT 14 Q F LT 13 Q F LT 12 Q F LT 11 Q F LT 10 Q F LT 09 Q F LT 08 Q F LT 07 Q F LT 06 Q F LT 05 Q F LT 04 Q F LT 03 Q F LT 02 Q F LT 01 Q F LT04QE LT05QE LT06QE LT07QE LT08QE LT09QE LT10QE PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 LT16QE LT15QE LT14QE LT13QE LT12QE LT11QEPAL 39948 PAL 39948 LT 01 QB PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 LT 16 QD A LT 15 QD A LT 14 QD A LT 13 QD A LT 12 QD A LT 8QD A LT 9QD A LT 10 QD A PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 LT 17 QD D LT 16 QD D LT 15 QD D LT 31 QD D LT 32 QD D LT 14 QD D LT 13 QD D LT 34 QD D LT 35 QD D LT 36 QD D LT 12 QD D LT 11 QD D LT 10 QD D LT 9 QD D LT 8 QD D LT 7 QD D LT 6 QD D LT 5 QD D LT 4 QD D LT3QD D LT 37 QD D LT 38 QD D LT 40 QD D LT 42 QD D LT 43 QD D LT 1 QD D PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 PAL 39948 L2 QD D LT08 LT02 Q2 LT 14 PAL 32767 L 22 PAL 32767 Ls 1 a 3 PAL 32767 Ls 14 a 20 PAL 30729 Q I L 2 PAL 30729 Q II L 4 PAL 30729 Q II L 5 PAL 30729 Q I L 28 R R R R R R R R RR R R RR R R R R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R DIQU E DIQUE DIQUE Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po Po P P P P P P Bos Bos Bos Bos Bos Bos Bos Bos Bos Bos Bos M M M M M M M M M M M M M MM M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M MM M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M MM M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M MM M MM M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M MM M M M M M M M M M m m m M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M MM M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M MM M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M MOV. MOV. TERRA DE TERRA DE MOV. TERRA DE MOV. DE MOV. DE TERRA TERRA MOV. DE TERRA TERRA MOV. DE TERRA MOV. DE MOV. TERRA DE MOV. TERRADE MOV. MOV. DE TERRA MOV. DE TERRA TERRA DE MOV. TERRA DE PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PEDPED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED. PED. PED. PED. PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PEDRA PED PED. PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED PED. PED. P CONDOMÍNIO FLORESTAAM ESQUILOS BOSQUE DOS CONDOMÍNIO CONDOMÍNIO BOSQUE DOS ESQUILOS CONDOMÍNIO BOSQUE DOS ESQUILOS CONDOMÍNIO CAPIM MELADO CONDOMÍNIO ALDEIA ALDEIA CONDOMÍNIO NOVOS RUMOS CONDOMÍNIO CONDOMÍNIO VILA HELENA CONDOMÍNIO DA DELFIM CONDOMÍNIO DA DELFIM CONDOMíNIO VILAGE DA FLORESTA CONDOMÍNIO FLORESTA DA BARRA FLORE STA ENCAN TADA JARDIM ESCOL A MÃD ICOPOS TO CREC HE DE MORA D. ASSO C. CLUB COUNTRY FLORESTA 130C02 30C01 25C01 10C02 70C02 146C10 146C08 30C02 30C01 20C02 40C02 50C01 50C02 60C01 60C02 70C01 70C02 70C01 50C02 50C01 45C02 35C02 25C02 20C02 30C02 35C02 35C01 25C01 45C02 45C01 55C02 55C01 65C02 65C01 75C01 75C02 85C01 85C02 80C02 80C01 70C02 70C01 60C01 60C02 50C02 50C01 40C02 40C01 105C01 95CC02 95C01 105C02 115C02 115C01 125C02 125C01 135C02 130C02 130C01 120C02 120C01 110C02 110C01 100C02 100C01 90C02 135C01 300C02 300C01 290C02 290C01 280C02 340C01 310C01 310C02 320C02 320C01 330C01 330C02 340C02 85C01 85C02 65C01 65C02 390C02 125C02 125C01 115C02 115C01 105C02 195C01 195C02 205C01 205C02 265C02 265C01 255C02 255C01 245C02 245C01 235C02 235C01 225C02 225C01 212C0 2 212C01 295C01 295C02 285C02 285C01 275C02 275C01 265C02 255C0 2 240C0 2 240C01 230C0 2 230C01 220C02 220C0 1 210C0 2 210C0 1 200C02 200C01 R R R R R R R R R R R R R C C C C C C C C C C C C CC C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C T T T T T T T T T T T TT TT T T T T TT T TT T T T T T T T T T E E INDÚS TRIA ANTÁR TICA EMBARCA ãÕES INDÚSTR IA DE COBRA HV-3728 HV-3727 Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man ManMan Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man P Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man ManMan Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Man Escola de Área Parque de Área a Escola Destinada Área POSTO GAS. GAS. POSTO F P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P 087 37.8 ha 77.55 ha • 2 Primary Schools for 800 students each (50,000 sf / 4,645 sqm) • 2 Kindergartens (3,000 sf / 270 sqm) • 2 Pre-schools (2,000 sf / 186 sqm) • 1 Health Center for 50,000 to 80,000 people (40,000 sf / 3,716 sqm) • 1 Community Center (Converted factory/SESC) • Playgrounds/Recreation/Open Space (4.8 hectares) • 1 Security post Incorporated into Community Facility • Day-care Facilities (Incorporated into Commercial) Residential & Commercial 53% Open Space 15% Circulation 25% Health Facilities 1%Schools 6% AMBEV Site = 32.5 ha Land Use LAND USE AMBEV Site= 32.5 ha PROGRAM
  • 116. MASTER PLAN INFRASTRUCTURE & GRID Lot: 4m x 12m Building Footprint: 4m x 8m 36 Lots per 24 m x 64 m block Primary Commercial Coorridor 4 Lanes 22m wide Secondary Roads 1 lane 6m wide Housing Unit Framework: Basic Frame with utility wall for each plot with connect to water, power, sewer (1 per unit/$3,600 per unit) Roads Water 632 Sq M/per block $28,500 USD/per block 220 M/per block $105,000 USD/per block Sewage 220 M/per block $160,000 USD/per block Electricity 128 M/per block $43,200 USD/per block Stormwater Mgmt Streetlamps 72 M/per block $7,200 4 lights/per block $2,100
  • 117. CASE STUDY: ELEMENTAL Limited resources for affordable housing are invested to build half of a good house, rather than a full house with poor construction. The savings in construction are reinvested towards a site which is more strategically located with a higher-land value. A better Location should permit the property to appreciate in time, rather than depreciate. The user will respond to this ‘half-house’ by wanting to expand it over time. The design accommodates for this incremental growth with an adjacent void, mitigating the risk of structural failure and over- crowdedness. The units are built with cheap prefabricated concrete panels and assembled on site and left virtually ‘raw’, with limited finishes. Users then self-improve their homes, selecting the tiling or exterior paint color to their liking. STRATEGY INCREMENTAL GROWTH SELF CUSTOMIZED Elemental Project Elemental Project
  • 118. BUILDING TYPOLOGY 1 Unit 4m x 8m (13 ft x 26 ft) 32 sqm (344 sqft) $3,424 USD R$7,670 1 Unit Expansion 8m x 8m (26 ft x 26 ft) 64 sqm (688 sqft) $5,136 USD R$11,504 2 Units shown with shared expansion 8m x 4m + 4m x 4m 48 sqm (516 sqft) $6,848 USD R$15,340 Utilities Unit A Unit B Utilities Unit A Unit B Commerical Rear Yard 1 Unit 4m x 8m (13 ft x 26 ft) 32 sqm (344 sqft) $3,424 USD R$7,670 1 Unit Expansion 8m x 8m (26 ft x 26 ft) 64 sqm (688 sqft) $5,136 USD R$11,504 2 Units shown with shared expansion 8m x 4m + 4m x 4m 48 sqm (516 sqft) $6,848 USD R$15,340 Utilities Unit A Unit B Utilities Unit A Unit B Commerical Rear Yard UNITS CONNECT ON THE BLOCK
  • 123. PHASING PHASE 1 Constuction & Sell 1 Permanent Bond 455 Units/Yr Refinanced Balance: $7.9 mn - Minimum Debt Payment/Month/Unit: $30.40 (R$68.1) Bond Payoff 2 Construction & Sell Initial Balance: $20.34 mn 2 Permanent Bond 581 Units/Yr Refinanced Balance: $6.10 mn - Minimum Debt Payment/Month/Unit: $23.24 (R$52.05) Bond Payoff 3 Construction & Sell Initital Balance: $18.71 mn 3 Permanent Bond 553 Units/Yr Refinanced Balance: $5.46 mn - Minimum Debt Payment/Month/Unit: $22.61 (R$50.65) Bond Payoff 4 Construction & Sell Initital Balance: $23.63 mn 4 Permanent Bond 577 Units/Yr Refinanced Balance: $7.13 mn - Minimum Debt Payment/Month/Unit: $27.14 (R$60.79) Bond Payoff Assumptions CLT Bond Financing Rate: 9% Permanent Bond Term: 20 years CLT Buy-In Per Unit: Initial Balance: $20.58 mn 8,577$ 20542014 2019 2024 2029 2034 2039 2044 2049 PHASING MODEL CLT REVENUE STREAM R$92 per unit 25% of monthly housing expense Revenue R$2,638,950 8% credit loss (R$204,433) 30% operations & maintenance (R$791,694) Infrastructure Debt Service (R$1,379,059) Balance R$257,108 $$$ $ $ $ CLT
  • 124. FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS Pays installments to offset infrastructure costs INCOME + HOUSING AFFORDABILITY RDP Area Average median income per capita per month R$ 543 R$ 1,222: Per Household or unit 2.25 Income earners per household 30% of Income on Housing = $367 per month R$367.00 -92.00 -45.00 =229.89 CLT Utilities PV = R$9,247.67 Micro-Loan Payment 30%
  • 125. FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS PUBLIC SUBSIDY Government provides land cost per unit R$3,033 Subsidy level differs per income bracket Voucher system for houses with lower levels of income 9%Interest Rate on Bond R$8,739 per unit R$ 19,214: “Buy In” Unit Cost Up to PUBLIC SUBSIDY PHASING Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Total Start Year 2,014 2,019 2,023 2,027 - Size sq m 65,000 65,000 60,000 65,000 255,000 Size Acres 16.1 16.1 14.8 16.1 63.0 Size Hectares 6.5 6.5 6.0 6.5 25.5 Infr. As % of Total housing expense 17% 12% 12% 12% 0% Total Persons 9,068 9,068 8,342 9,068 35,545 Total Units 2,400 2,400 2,208 2,400 9,408
  • 126. CONCLUSION Sites & Services approach with a Community Land Trust ownership model • Replicates the positive attributes of favela- like incremental growth • Legitimizes ownership structure • Provides adequate health/safety/welfare services • Ensures long-term affordability and access to land and housing for those who need it most Rio das Pedras 2014