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India's Indepencence

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India's Indepencence

  1. 1. India's Independence
  2. 2. Indian National Congress Founded in 1885
  3. 3. Gandhi with the London Vegetarian Society, 1890
  4. 4. Gandhi as a Lawyer in South Africa
  5. 5. Amritsar Massacre, 1919 379 dead; over 1200 wounded!
  6. 6. Salt March 1930 Making Salt
  7. 7. Last Viceroy of India Lord Louis & Lady Edwina Montbatten
  8. 8. Partition!
  9. 11. Border problems
  10. 12. Jawarlal Nehru <ul><li>Ally of Gandhi. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Prime Minister of India, 1947-1964. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated Industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted “Green Revolution.” </li></ul><ul><li>Nonaligned Movement. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Non-Alignment
  12. 14. <ul><li>private and public ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign aid & foreign investment are crucial. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban areas have high-tech companies. </li></ul><ul><li>75% of the population are farmers living in small villages. </li></ul><ul><li>India's &quot;Green Revolution&quot; allowed farmers to triple their crop by using modern science and technology. Goal of self-sufficiency. </li></ul>India’s Economy
  13. 15. <ul><li>Nehru’s daughter. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister of India, 1966-1984. </li></ul><ul><li>Continues Nehru’s policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Faced corruption charges & internal rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in 1984. </li></ul>Indira Gandhi
  14. 16. Persecution of the Sikhs The Sikh religion originated in 15th century in the Punjab region of India. (Sikhs goal is the union of one’s soul with God. A Sikh disciplines his thoughts and actions so that the five obstacles — lust, anger, greed, attachment and ego — are dispelled and his soul is united with God. Sikhs believe that the cycle of reincarnation is escaped by this union.)
  15. 17. A Sikh Diaspora: Below: Sikh new year in Canada
  16. 18. Mrs. Gandhi assassinated! 1984
  17. 19. <ul><li>Indira’s son. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister of India, 1984-1989. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reform of economy and government. </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in 1991. </li></ul>Rajiv Gandhi
  18. 20. <ul><li>Italian-born Sonia Maino married Rajiv Gandhi in 1968. </li></ul><ul><li>She moved into the house of her mother-in-law, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. </li></ul>A foreigner joins the family
  19. 21. <ul><li>1983  Indian citizen. </li></ul><ul><li>1984  first lady when her husband, Rajiv Gandhi, succeeded his assassinated mother as Prime Minister. </li></ul>Mrs. Sonia Maino Gandhi
  20. 22. <ul><li>1991  Tragedy struck the Gandhi family again when Rajiv was killed by a suicide bomber. </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Sonia Gandhi remained Roman Catholic, but follows Hindu & Indian traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>With her children, she scattered Rajiv's ashes in the Ganges. </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>After Rajiv's death Sonia shied away from the spotlight. In 1998, she agreed to start her own career as a “Gandhi” again and became an important political leader. </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Sonia's son Rahul and daughter Priyanka have also become politically active. </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>2004  Prime Minister. </li></ul><ul><li>He stood next to Sonia Gandhi, who stunned the country when she declined the office of Prime Minister. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first Sikh to be Prime Minister. </li></ul>Manmohan Singh
  25. 28. <ul><li>Overpopulation  1 billion & climbing. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu-Muslim tensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender issues  dowry killings. </li></ul><ul><li>Caste bias  discrimination against untouchables continues. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Political assassinations. </li></ul>Major problems in India today
  26. 29. Is the dream gone?
  27. 30. 1971 India-Pakistan War
  28. 31. Indira Gandhi with her troops
  29. 32. Indian soldiers near the Pakistan border
  30. 33. 1998 India and Pakistan test nuclear weapons
  31. 34. 2002 Military Statistics
  32. 37. The India-Pakistan Arms Race Heats Up in the Late 1990s
  33. 38. 2002 Nuclear Statistics
  34. 39. Pakistani Activists Burn an Indian Flag to Protest India’s 1998 Nuclear Tests
  35. 40. Hot Air Balloon Protesting India & Pakistan’s nuclear testing - 1998
  36. 41. India Displays Nuclear Missiles During “Republic Day,” - 2002
  37. 43. New Friends? Musharraf and India's new Prime Minister Manmohan Singh speak by telephone frequently affirming a strong desire for peace and resolution of their disputes, including Kashmir, on which the two countries have fought two of their three wars.
  38. 44. Partners in the “War on Terror?”
  39. 47. <ul><li>Led briefly by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister Ayub Khan. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous combination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was not prepared to rule in 1948. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Islamic fundamentalism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impoverished. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pakistan divides in 1972 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W. Pakistan = Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. Pakistan = Bangladesh </li></ul></ul>pakistan
  40. 48. <ul><li>First Woman Prime Minister, 1988 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ousted in 1990, 1993 on corruption charges. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nawaz Sharif </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ousted three times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle between modernizers and fundamentalists. </li></ul></ul>Benazir Bhutto
  41. 49. <ul><ul><li>Coup d’etat . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular government against Islamic fundamentalists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. ally in the “War on Terror.” </li></ul></ul>Gen. Pervex Musharaff
  42. 50. <ul><li>Economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>Political instability/military dictatorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu-Muslim tensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender issues  honor killings. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons. </li></ul>Major problems & Issues in Pakistan today
  43. 51. India-Pakistan Border Disputes

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    Mar. 11, 2014


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