Known as Il Vittoriano, this monument was begun in 1885 and inaugurated in 1925 in honour of Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, the first king of a unified Italy. The king is depicted here in a gilt bronze equestrian statue, over-sized like the monument itself - the statue is 12 m (39 ft) long.Built in austere white Brescian marble, the &quot;wedding cake&quot; or &quot;typewriter&quot; (two of many insulting nicknames given to this unloved white elephant) will never mellow into the ochre tones of surrounding buildings. It is widely held to be the epitome of self-important, insensitive architecture.Its negative fame is now starting to change: the edifice contains an exhibition area offering important temporary exhibitions. To note that in June 2002, Il Vittoriano has been re-opened to the public, to become one of the most glorious &quot;belvederes&quot; over Rome&apos;s unique scenarios. The lavish Victor Emmanuel Monument, Italy&apos;s first King. This huge white structure right in the middle of Rome is hated for its associations with fascism, incongruence with the surrounding old architecture, and shameless luxury. It is, nonetheless, spectacular. The Kingdom of Italy needed to celebrate Victor Emmanuel II and the northern part of Capitol Hill was chosen to erect a gigantic monument which was to become the symbol itself of the new State. Palazzetto Venezia was re-erected near the church of S. Marco, the Torlonia sold their Palace (previously known as Palazzo Bolognetti) to allow space for enlarging Piazza Venezia and the medieval buildings on the slopes of the Capitol (including the imposing tower shown in the plate) were pulled down. The chapel mentioned by Vasi (Cappella della Beata Vergine) was in part rebuilt inside Palazzo Venezia.
When you think of Nazi Architecture/ Nazi Germany on general, what do you think of? Hitler’s intentions for Nazi Germany – the Third Reich: Wanted it to be the most powerful country/ empire in the world Thought that everything would center around Germany once they won the war Germany was depressed from losing WWI – Hitler could seize this low morale and mold it into national spirit Hitler believed that architecture could sculpt/ craft a nation This is why he put so much effort into creating his empire Intentions behind Hitler’s building plan: Unify – the nation under his rule – create cohesiveness within the people/ community (nationalism) Awe inspire – make it known to everybody who saw that Germany was all-powerful Educate – the German people about their past and their future under his reign
Volkshalle (“People’s Hall’) – concrete + stone Blatantly looking toward the Pantheon – Hitler had an obsession with the Pantheon &quot;From the time I experienced this building – no description, picture or photograph did it justice – I became interested in its history […] For a short while I stood in this space (the rotunda) – what majesty! I gazed at the large open oculus and saw the universe and sensed what had given this space the name Pantheon – God and the world are one“ Was to be the architectural centerpiece of Berlin (i.e. in Hitler’s mind, the new World Capital)
Volkshalle OCULUS = 46 meters (150 feet) DOME = 90 meters (295 feet) The total HEIGHT = 290 Meters (950 Feet) Instead of the Eagle grasping a swastika at the top of the dome, It would be clenching the world Was to house 180,000 people
Volkshalle Architectural Flukes: Questionable completion of project Acoustics: Either impossible to hear the speaker because of the size of the space – or so loud that it would cause deafness Amount of people and size: One critic said: “during cold weather, the breathing and perspiration of 180,000 occupants in such a large and high dome might precipitate and fall back down.” This building was clearly meant to inspire awe in all who saw it.
Zeppelinfeld – Neoclassical style – very basic and unornamented Where Nazi Party rallies were help from 1933-1938 Building community – Having people come together as a group Hitler would assemble his troops in Zepplinfeld and parade them around – showing them off to the German people Incorporated Excessive amounts of flags and banners – very spirited