Open Science and 21st Century Naturalist Skills Jeff Danielian NAGC Denver 2012 firstname.lastname@example.org
“The journey is difficult,immense. We will travel as faras we can, but we cannot inone lifetime see all that wewould like to see or to learn allthat we hunger to know.” Loren Eiseley
The curriculum presented here is:•an attempt to return to the roots of science education•constructed to allow students to pursue an interest inthe natural world•focused on the methodologies needed to conduct fieldwork•designed to enable the students to see and ponder theconnections they perceive• presents a problem solving approach to somenaturalistic issue in their own neighborhoods,We can awaken the young naturalist, allowing them tounderstand and be aware of their attachment to the naturalworld.
Student Inquiries (Guiding Questions) • What is Natural History? • What do Naturalists do? • How are Natural Observations conducted? • How are Natural Observations Documented? • What is the value of Natural Observations? • Who are some well known naturalists? • How are the parts of nature connected? • How are species classified and named? • What interactions can we discover?• What is a Nature essay and how and why are they written? • What are the categories of nature? • What subjects are related to Natural History? • What is a Museum? • Why do we have Museums?
Basic Principles• Species are the entities we observe, describe, and discuss.• Living things are bound together in intricate, interconnected webs.• Life on earth is extraordinary diverse.• The natural world is a vast network of complex communities, connected through shared environments.• By studying nature, naturalists observe the relationships of size and shape, recognize distributional patterns, observe behaviors and adaptation, and come to understand the diversity of life.• Natural science is the study of organisms in the environment, its relation to the world about it, and the features which enable it to function in its surroundings.• Human activity on the planet has had a profound effect on the diversity of species.
General Skills• Compare and Contrast • Recognizing Patterns• Finding Relationships • Classifying • Organizing • Observation • Writing • Research • Drawing Conclusions • Reading • Technology
Methodological Skills • Plant, Animal, and Rock Identification• Nature Photography and Documentation • Nature Sketching • Sampling specimens • Hiking basics (rules and safety) • Microscope and hand lens use • Field Guide Use • Nature Writing • Museum Exhibit Creation • Map Reading • Field Notes • Observation Techniques
Habits of Mind (Dispositions) • Respect for Nature• Awareness of the environment • Curiosity • Play • Patience • Self-reflection • Metacognition
Content Standards Standards and Benchmarks From: Atlas of Science Literacy, Volumes 1 and 2 http://www.project2061.org/publications/atlas/default.htmThe Nature of ScienceScientific Inquiry The Scientific Community (from Part II) See grades 6-8, 9-12 Disciplines Scientific Communication Evidence and Reasoning in Inquiry 1B/1, 1B/2, 1B/3, 12A/2 Scientific Investigations 1A/1, 1C/7, 1B/1, 1B/2The Living Environment Diversity of Life (from Part II) See grades 6-8, 9-12
Tools of The Trade – Binoculars and Hand Lenses – Camera– Collecting tools and containers – Field Guides – Field Book or Journal – Something to write with – Backpacks and side packs – Smart Phone, Tablet, or NB
Thinking Like a “……………..”Name_________________________________Ologist or Otanist____________________________________You are to search the web and/or books at the library to find the answers to the following questions. These will help guide you in understanding the roles of the naturalist field you have chosen.1. What does a ………..do? Please write these as statements. You can simply type a search for “What does a ……..do?” Try to vary your answers from different perspectives. I have given youexamples. Provide at least 5 statements.2. Questions …………ask. Please write these as questions using What, Where, Who, Why, etc. Again, you can simply type in “Questions………..ask” and you will find many ideas. I have given you examples. Provide at least 6 questions.3. (This is extra if you have time or come across any ideas use the back) List if you can, a list of skills your naturalist would use.
EXPLORING A FIELD GUIDE• Names of members of your group: Field Guide Title: Area of Specialty: The best place to look for the following information is in the front section of the field guide in the introduction section.• How is the Field Guide organized? (how do you use it?)• How are the species or objects categorized in the guide?• What do you think is most helpful in the guide?• Is there anything confusing in the guide?• What is the coolest part of the guide?• Do you think this guide is easy or hard to use?
Some Attributes to Look For• Animals: Behavior, Habitat, Tracks, Appearance, Sounds, correct naming procedures, and any tricks of the trade they come up with.• Insects : Body types, coloring, behavior, habitat, nests or other homes, evidence of where they have been.• Birds : wing types, coloring, body and beak types, song, nesting, feeding, habitat.• Trees: leaf type, seed type, type of tree, where they grow, coloring, shapes of branches, patterns.• Plants: stalk, leafs, flowers, fruits, seeds, root types, poisonous or not.• Rocks: Types of rock, types of minerals, hardness, color, commonalities, where to find, effects on ground type.
Common Species/Rocks/Weather Pattern Assignment• Three to four sentences describing the physical features of the chosen species/object.• One detailed sketch that may or may not be colored. Labeling helps with size and color identification..• The common name, and if possible, the scientific name.• Common places someone may find it.• Documentation of where you found this information.• 1 or more questions you may have about it.
Museum of Natural History Assignment• Using your field books, you are to study 6 specimens of the same species. These can be found in one gallery or from several collections. The HMNH presents a historic and interdisciplinary exploration of science and nature, with an emphasis on evolutionary theory, so you will be using those Brains of yours to think. Don’t forget pencils, your field book, this sheet, and colored pencils if you choose.• Each study must contain:• A Title on the top of the page. (Gallery, Specimen, etc.)• Information given at exhibit, such as where discovered who discovered, and any other facts about it.• A labeled sketch.• Your written observations• Your interpretation and ideas (why you chose it?) Patterns that emerge, relationships you see.
Researchers at WorkName of Research Paper and Topic of interest:Names of Group Members:Abstract or Summary of Paper:What was the hypothesis, goal, or assumption that wasstated:How results gathered and what were the results? Whattools were used?What was the conclusion:Any interesting ideas or facts?:
Other Connections• Podcasts• Music• Visual and Performing Arts• Creative Writing• Video Production• Education• Independent Projects
Student Response“EOL is easy to use and has tons of information about living things. Its reallyhelpful for school projects.” Peyton L. 7th“EOL is so helpful for school projects and for learning about all things natural!Someone did a great job creating this website!!” Kevin S. 7th"EOL is a great source of information for aspiring naturalists.” Grace C. 7th“The inaturalist mobile app, working with EOL, is very helpful, especially if youhave a built in GPS. The great thing about the mobile app is that if you are inthe field, you can use it as a great alternative to your field notebook. Kevin S.7th "Its very fun to use and helps me a lot with my observations, I like themaps.“ Jimmy T, 7th
Student Response“I am so excited to use this amazing website. It has become the single mosthelpful tool in my studies. Every time I need information about nearly anyspecies, I can go to EOL and get far more information than I need. They givesuch exquisite details on the most specific of species. From information aboutthe habitat to the diet to the reproduction, EOL tells it all. Thanks, EOL, forgiving me the guidance and information I need to become a new and bloomingnaturalist.” Ben B 7th“EOL is an amazing website. It has helped me get a lot of work done. Lastly, Iwould recommend this great tool to anybody needing help with their studies ofliving things.” Ryan B. 7th“Eol is an amazing website that is very useful when looking up information onspecies. I love how they give location maps, paragraphs, and diagrams, foreach species.” Merry S. 7th
Seminar Directions1. Introduction You can start with a short description of the “topic” concerning the area of your naturalist discipline. Then introduce your problem by giving some literature review of what has been said about it2. Fundamentals of it (What are interesting facts, who is involved, what does it tell us)3. Any research ideas you have4. Concluding remarks / Summary
Examples of Topic Areas• Animals: defense, extinction, migration, habitats• Insects : pheromones, pesticides, plant interactions, invasive and native• Birds: distribution, songs, migration routes, effects of wind power• Trees: old growth forests, deforestation, fungus, rot, protection• Plants: medicinal uses, history of, poisonous, edible• Rocks: sources of fuel, gems, building structures, ground water
Lesson 10: Let’s Get to WorkThe following is the assignment for the finalproject and accompanying assessment. It shouldbe the judgment of the teacher as to when toassign it and have students begin this final work.It will be prefaced by some outdoor field workwhich will serve as the preparation for the project.As you will see, there is great choice and varietyin terms of the naturalist area chosen, themedium for the product, and the audience forwhich it will be presented. As with all otherchoices and assignments, it must come from theheart of the student.
Part 1: SELECTION OF A ROLEThis part relates directly to your naturalist discipline. ROLES Geologist Botanist Zoologist Biologist Entomologist Ecologist OTHER Part 2: SELECTION OF A FORMATThis part relates to how you will present your findings, share your personal voice, andseek to educate someone else, your audience.
Photographic Collection: This collection will display a study of the naturalenvironment and will be completed with accompanying 1 Paragraph explanationsand/or page description of the collection of each of the photographs. There is to bea minimum of 4 photographs and each must be 8’x10’ in size. B+W or ColorNature Essay: Written in the style of past and future essayists, you are to useyour findings to reflect upon an aspect of nature. Think of the interrelationshipsyou see, the principles that are expressed, and the personal and cultural messageyou wish to express. Minimum length of 4 pages, double spaced, 12 point font.Poem Collection: Written in the style of past and present poets, you are to useyour findings to reflect upon an aspect of nature. Think of the interrelationshipsyou see, the principles that are expressed, and the personal and cultural messageyou wish to express. Minimum of 8 poems of no less than 10 lines each. Bound ina creative manner.
Research Paper: This paper is written in Journal style format, complete with a list ofreferences. You are to look at an area of nature and pose a question or hypothesis. (Seetopic ideas later on.) You may start simple, such as a complete survey of a specificspecies or rock type, or you may go into depth by posing a more advanced question.This paper is to include photos of samples from the field, data and observations, andmust have a conclusion. Minimum length of 4 pages, double spaced, 12 point font. Try touse a variety of sources and have at least four. Correct bibliographic format is required.Collection of Artwork: This collection will display a study of the natural environmentand will be completed with accompanying 1 Paragraph explanations and/or 1 pagedescription of the collection of each of the artworks. There is to be a minimum of 4 artpieces and can be oil, acrylic, watercolor, pen and ink, or pencil. Each is to be mounted.Newspaper Editorial: Written in the style of current editorial writers, you are to use yourfindings to reflect upon an aspect of nature. Think of the interrelationships you see, theprinciples that are expressed, and the personal and cultural message you wish toexpress. Also consider persuading an audience to share your opinion. Minimum lengthof 2 pages, double spaced, 12 point font.
Lesson Plan for a Classroom: You may wish to organize your findings into aclassroom lesson plan. This could include stories, activities, demonstrations, and thelike. You are type your lesson plan and include time needed for each activity. Youmust also arrange for your lesson to be used in a classroom. It would help if you hadan exit survey to see how well you did.Pamphlet or PowerPoint Presentation: You may wish to present your findings in amedium that could be presented to a wider audience. Consider an area you wishpeople to visit, ideas you wish for them to know, and what they will observe whenthey get there. This could be a local park, preserve, or sanctuary. It may be your ownbackyard. Pamphlet must be 3 fold, PowerPoint a minimum of 10 slides.The American Museum of Natural History Young Naturalist Awards: This is acontest sponsored by the museum. They post a topic each year and offer a chancefor you to be recognized. The judging criteria, rules, entry forms, and help areavailable online at:http://www.amnh.org/nationalcenter/youngnaturalistawards/ . There are also sampleideas from past entries and winners available to you.
Grading Rubric (objectives)• METHODOLOGICAL SKILLS -displays correct format in field notes- field notes are organized -field notes are correctly labeled, containing sketches and relevant information• CONNECTIONS WITH NATURE -understandings and essential questions are addressed -product displays sense of connection with nature• SENSE OF PERSONAL VOICE -student understands voice-student was able to find his/her voice-voice was evident-voice was unique and genuine• PRODUCT COMPLETION -directions and outline was followed - regular consultations were made between teacher and student -work was completed with a high amount of creativity, task commitment, and ability• AUDIENCE FINDING AND ACCEPTANCE -audience was located - audience was contacted-presentation planned -audience acceptance and evaluation
Grading Rubric (categories)• BACKYARD NATURALIST• STUDENT NATURALIST• UNIVERSITY NATURALIST• EXPERT IN THE FIELD
“It is quite impossible in textbooksto present the local problems ofzoology, physics, and botany whichwill come up if pupils are alert tounderstand their surroundings.(Whipple, 1920, p.146)