My brainstorm sheet
My research
Geography
Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia, strategically
located between ...
zones, with frequent earthquakes and many hot springs and
extinct volcanoes. The nation's closest point to any ocean is
ap...
Death rate:
6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:156
Net migration rate:
-0.85 migrant...
2.76 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density:
6.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
impr...
female: 97.9% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 1...
can down the road", to use perhaps a more appropriate
metaphor) and the world's stock indices, from the Hang Seng
to the D...
Mongolia
Mongolia is challenged by significant external imbalances because foreign
direct investment has declined rapidly ...
abundant coal supplies in the PRC and growing competition from other major
coal-exporting countries.
The consumer price in...
debt sustainability has been impaired by the rising share of borrowing at
commercial rates since 2012.
To cushion the impa...
billion in January after the DBM issued a $290 million samurai bond 90%
guaranteed by the Japan Bank for International Coo...
the togrog. Inflationary pressure in 2015 is expected to ease, assuming a
tightening of economic policy in 2014 and a more...
spurred substantial credit expansion and debt accumulation, as well as
boosted demand for imports.
While current foreign e...
Timothy May 
 North Georgia College and State University
World History and the Mongols
An empire arose in the steppes of M...
Tangut kingdom Xixia (modern Ningxia and Gansu provinces of China) by 1209.2
In
1211 Chinggis Khan invaded the Jin Empire ...
Din (d. 1230) attempted to rally the empire in Afghanistan, Chinggis Khan defeated him
near the Indus River in 1221, forci...
were translated and delivered in triplicate—each one being in another language so that
there was a high probability that s...
1260. As the Mongol Empire spiraled into civil war after the death of Mongke, Hülegü
never recovered the Syrian conquests....
proclaimed "Genghis Khan," he started the Mongol invasions that
resulted in the conquest of most of Eurasia. These include...
7th century finds found 180km from Ulaanbaatar. Kept in Ulaanbaatar. A
constant theme in Mongolian history is relations wi...
(13,000,000 sq mi),[21] (22% of Earth's total land area) and having a
population of over 100 million people. The emergence...
Batumöngke Dayan Khan and his khatun Mandukhai reunited the entire
Mongol nation under the Genghisids in the early 16th ce...
The Manchus also forbade mass Chinese immigration, allowing the Mongols
to keep their culture. The main trade route during...
The area controlled by the Bogd Khaan was approximately that of the former
Outer Mongolia during the Qing period. In 1919,...
Republic by killing more than 30,000 people. Russia stopped Buryats
migration to the Mongolian People's Republic in 1930 t...
communist parties came in 1993 (presidential elections) and 1996
(parliamentary elections). The signing of the Oyu Tolgoi ...
1920 - Mongolian revolutionaries found the Mongolian People's
Party and open contact with Bolsheviks in Siberia.
Continue ...
in the USSR and shot for spying for Japan.
International recognition
1945-46 - Yalta conference agrees to preserve the sta...
wins 71 of the 76 seats in the new single-chamber Great Hural.
1993 - The first direct presidential elections are won by O...
2004 January - Russia writes off all but $300 million of Mongolia's
debts.
Power-sharing
2004 June-August - Parliamentary ...
2010 February - Extreme cold kills so much livestock that the
United Nations launches a programme to pay herders to clean ...
2012 August - Former president Nambaryn Enkhbayar is
sentenced to four years in jail for corruption.
2012 December - Mongo...
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Research for humanities

  1. 1. My brainstorm sheet My research Geography Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia, strategically located between China and Russia. The terrain is one of mountains and rolling plateaus, with a high degree of relief. The total land area of Mongolia is 1,564,116 square kilometres. Overall, the land slopes from the high Altay Mountains of the west and the north to plains and depressions in the east and the south. The Hüiten Peak in extreme western Mongolia on the Chinese border is the highest point (4,374 metres). The lowest is 518 metres, an otherwise undistinguished spot in the eastern Mongolian plain. The country has an average elevation of 1,580 metres. The landscape includes one of Asia's largest freshwater lakes (Lake Khövsgöl), many salt lakes, marshes, sand dunes, rolling grasslands, alpine forests, and permanent mountain glaciers. Northern and western Mongolia are seismically active
  2. 2. zones, with frequent earthquakes and many hot springs and extinct volcanoes. The nation's closest point to any ocean is approximately 960 kilometres (600 mi) from the country's easternmost tip bordering northern China to Chongjin in North Korea along the coastline of the Sea of Japan. Reference : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Mongolia Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s) adjective: Mongolian Ethnic groups: Khalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhch Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90% (official), Turkic, Russian (1999) Religions: Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist 2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2 Population: 2,953,190 (July 2014 est.) country comparison to the world:139 Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.8% (male 404,051/female 388,546) 15-24 years: 18.7% (male 278,912/female 273,167) 25-54 years: 44.5% (male 636,799/female 677,236) 55-64 years: 4.1% (male 80,267/female 94,021) 65 years and over: 4% (male 49,314/female 70,877) (2014 est.) population pyramid: Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45.1 % youth dependency ratio: 39.6 % elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 % potential support ratio: 18.1 (2013) Median age: total: 27.1 years male: 26.3 years female: 27.8 years (2014 est.) Population growth rate: 1.37% (2014 est.) country comparison to the world:89 Birth rate: 20.88 births/1,000 population (2014 est.) country comparison to the world:81
  3. 3. Death rate: 6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.) country comparison to the world:156 Net migration rate: -0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.) country comparison to the world:145 Urbanization: urban population: 68.5% of total population (2011) rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Major urban areas - population: ULAANBAATAR (capital) 949,000 (2009) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.) Maternal mortality rate: 63 deaths/100,000 live births (2010) country comparison to the world:96 Infant mortality rate: total: 23.15 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world:79 male: 26.4 deaths/1,000 live births female: 19.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.98 years country comparison to the world:158 male: 64.72 years female: 73.45 years (2014 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.22 children born/woman (2014 est.) country comparison to the world:100 Contraceptive prevalence rate: 55% (2010) Health expenditures: 5.3% of GDP (2011) country comparison to the world:129 Physicians density:
  4. 4. 2.76 physicians/1,000 population (2008) Hospital bed density: 6.8 beds/1,000 population (2011) Drinking water source: improved: urban: 100% of population rural: 53.1% of population total: 85.3% of population unimproved: urban: 0% of population rural: 46.9% of population total: 14.7% of population (2011 est.) Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 64% of population rural: 29.1% of population total: 53% of population unimproved: urban: 36% of population rural: 70.9% of population total: 47% of population (2011 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world:161 HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 500 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world:160 HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world:140 Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 14.4% (2008) country comparison to the world:122 Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 5.3% (2005) country comparison to the world:88 Education expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2011) country comparison to the world:58 Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.4% male: 96.8%
  5. 5. female: 97.9% (2011 est.) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 14 years female: 16 years (2012) Child labor - children ages 5-14: total number: 106,203 percentage: 18 % (2005 est.) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 11.9% country comparison to the world:100 male: 10.7% female: 13.2% (2011) Reference : CIA WORLD FACT BOOK Economy Over the past 20 years, Mongolia has transformed itself from a socialist country to a vibrant multiparty democracy with a booming economy. Mongolia is at the threshold of a major transformation driven by the exploitation of its vast mineral resources and the share of mining in GDP today stands at 20 percent, twice the ratio of a decade ago. The economic growth rate is estimated at 12.5 percent in 2013, compared to 6.4 percent GDP growth in 2010. GDP is expected to grow at a double digit rate over the period from 2013 to 2017. This economic growth has translated into some benefits for the people of Mongolia. Poverty has been on a downward trend over the past decade. Most recently, it decreased from 38.7 percent in 2010 to 27.4 percent in 2012. Substantial progress has also been made in regard to several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) at the national level, though significant regional disparities prevail. To ensure sustainable and inclusive growth, Mongolia will need to strengthen institutional capacity to manage public revenues efficiently and limit the effects of Dutch Disease; allocate its resources effectively among spending, investing, and saving; reduce poverty; and offer equal opportunities to all its citizens in urban and rural areas. It needs to do this in a manner which protects the environment and intergenerational equity. Reference : www.worldbank.org PHEW, America steps back from the "fiscal cliff" (or "kicks the
  6. 6. can down the road", to use perhaps a more appropriate metaphor) and the world's stock indices, from the Hang Seng to the Dow Jones, soar to their highest level in months. Cynical Cassandra is not impressed. As The World in 2013 argues "the world economy's woes are far from over", with only the emerging economies (a phrase that now seems to cover countries that have long since emerged—witness China, second only to America in economic weight) promising robust growth for the coming year. But it would be churlish for me to be so negative at the start of a year, so let me direct readers to another, more cheerful, part of The World in 2013: the list of the world's ten fastest-growing economies. The star performer will be Mongolia, followed by Macau. Both should give thanks to China (number four on the list): it is China's demand for Mongolia's minerals that is powering its economy; and it is Chinese gamblers who fill the casinos of Macau. China apart, the list consists of economies too small to move the world's stock indices. But do they have attractions that size cannot measure? Bhutan (at number five) is undoubtedly beautiful and is blessed with hydroelectric power, and, now that their various wars or periods of political insurrection are over, there are surely advocates for Timor- Leste and the East African duo of Mozambique and Rwanda. Ghana, a model of stability in West Africa, has lots of fans— and promising oil reserves, too. Libya (number three) and Iraq (equal seventh) both have a lot of oil but not exactly great stability. The sad thing, however, is that (unless my eyes deceive me) of the fastest growing economies only China— ranked 49th—makes it into the 80 countries in The World in 2013's list of the best places to be born this year. At the risk of sounding heretical to readers of The Economist, economic growth is clearly not the be-all and end-all of life… Reference : http://www.economist.com/blogs/theworldin2013/2013/01/fastest-growing- economies-2013
  7. 7. Mongolia Mongolia is challenged by significant external imbalances because foreign direct investment has declined rapidly and some mineral exports remain weak. Growth is forecast to moderate in 2014 and remain broadly stable in 2015, inflation to decline, and the current account balance to improve over the next 2 years, assuming appropriate policies. The major policy priority is to address pressures on the balance of payments and foreign exchange reserves. Economic performance The Mongolian economy grew by 11.7% in 2013, down from 12.4% in 2012. Growth was boosted by highly expansionary fiscal and monetary policies to compensate for the marked slowdown in coal exports and mine development financed through foreign direct investment (FDI), which have been the drivers of growth in recent years. Strong economic growth has helped reduce the poverty rate by more than 11 percentage points in the past 2 years, to 27% in 2012. Industrial production increased by 20.1% in 2013, contributing 5.1 percentage points to economic growth, driven by construction, which expanded by 66%, boosted by monetary and fiscal stimulus. Mining output expanded by 20.7%, thanks to the ramp-up of copper production at the vast Oyu Tolgoi mine, which started in June 2013. Services expanded by 10.0%, contributing 4.3 percentage points to economic growth. Favorable weather allowed agriculture to expand by 13.5%, contributing 2.0 percentage points (Figure 3.12.1). Domestic consumption was the main driver of economic growth from the expenditure side, increasing by 16.3% in constant prices and contributing 13.7 percentage points to growth. Gross capital formation increased by 2.1%, contributing 1.5 percentage points, while net foreign trade and services subtracted 3.6 percentage points (Figure 3.12.2). The completion of the first phase of Oyu Tolgoi and a dramatic fall in FDI reduced imports of capital goods, which led a 5.7% drop in imports of goods. Exports of goods declined by 2.6% as coal exports to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) plummeted by 40.7% owing to
  8. 8. abundant coal supplies in the PRC and growing competition from other major coal-exporting countries. The consumer price index rose by 10.4% in 2013. It had fallen in the first half with the phase-out of the cash handout scheme and the temporary impact of the price stabilization program of the Bank of Mongolia (BOM), the central bank. Inflation rose subsequently, driven by currency depreciation and expansionary fiscal and monetary policies (Figure 3.12.3). Economic trends and prospects in developing Asia: East Asia Mongolia 147 Fiscal policy became more expansionary in 2013 as the consolidated, on- and off-budget fiscal deficit widened to 11.1% of GDP from 10.9% in 2012. Excluding off budget spending, the cash deficit amounted to 1.4% of GDP, lower than the 7.4% recorded in 2012, and the structural deficit reached 1.7%, within the 2% ceiling of the Fiscal Stability Law (FSL). Actual government revenue increased by 19.6%, less than the budgeted (and highly optimistic) amount. Revenue shortages and implementation challenges reduced public investment expenditure by 5.1%, holding the increase in government expenditure to a mere 3.1% (Figure 3.12.4). The Development Bank of Mongolia (DBM) has become the main source of financing for off-budget spending, providing an amount equal to 9.6% of GDP in 2013 mainly for projects such as roads that do not generate revenue. The main source of DBM financing is proceeds from the Chinggis bond and a 5-year, $580 million euro bond issued in 2012, and the $290 million Samurai bond issued in December 2013. DBM debt is guaranteed by the government and so a contingent liability for the budget. The ratio of public debt to GDP rose from 35.9% in 2010 to 63.0% in 2012, and likely remained broadly unchanged in 2013, though no official data are yet available. The external debt component equaled 48.3% of GDP in 2012. A debt sustainability analysis conducted in 2013 by the International Monetary Fund found Mongolia at moderate risk of debt distress, assuming a strong policy scenario—no longer at low risk, as found by previous analyses. Public
  9. 9. debt sustainability has been impaired by the rising share of borrowing at commercial rates since 2012. To cushion the impact of declining FDI and boost credit growth, the BOM cut the policy rate three times in 2013 by a total of 275 basis points to 10.5%. It injected liquidity equal to 17.1% of GDP, including for onlending to selected sectors through price stabilization and mortgage programs at subsidized interest rates. Bank credit increased as a result by 41.0% year on year in 2013 and by 54.3% year on year to January 2014. Broad money (M2) increased by 19.3% and 36.6% year on year during the same periods (Figure 3.12.5). These policies are widely seen as important factors behind balance- of-payment (BOP) pressures starting last year. Capitalization and liquidity in the banking system have improved, but vulnerabilities remain. Weakness in bank supervision, inadequate provisioning, high loan concentration (especially in construction), dollarization, and a high and rising ratio of credit to deposits (at 103% in February 2014) have heightened the risk of bank distress. Corporate governance needs to be strengthened in the banking sector. The current account deficit narrowed in 2013 to $3.2 billion, or 27.4% of GDP, from 32.6% in 2012 (Figure 3.12.6). The trade deficit improved to 18.1% of GDP from 22.8% in 2012 as the decline in imports outpaced that of exports, but the services and transfers balance worsened. Since mid-2013, the trade and current account deficits have both narrowed as currency depreciation strengthened export competitiveness and constrained imports—and as exports were boosted by the start of production at the Oyu Tolgoi mine. FDI plunged by about 55% in 2013 because of uncertainties arising from changes in the investment law, slower growth in the PRC, the completion of the first phase of Oyu . 148 Asian Development Outlook 2014 Tolgoi, and delays in the expected commencement of the mine’s second phase. Foreign exchange reserves almost halved in 2013, falling by $1.9 billion to $2.2 billion, or 4 months of imports. They increased to $2.4
  10. 10. billion in January after the DBM issued a $290 million samurai bond 90% guaranteed by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. The Mongolian togrog has depreciated by 27% against the US dollar since early 2013 as capital inflows ebbed and market sentiment weakened over prolonged debate surrounding Oyu Tolgoi issues and over uncertainty regarding the regulatory framework for foreign investment. The nominal effective exchange rate of the togrog fell by 15.5%, but the real effective exchange rate fell by only 7.2% as inflation in Mongolia exceeded that of its trading partners (Figure 3.12.7). In October 2013, the parliament enacted a new comprehensive investment law, which aims to encourage FDI over the medium-term by leveling the playing field for foreign and domestic investors and ensuring a stable legal environment for investment. Under the law, the category of “strategic investor” no longer applies, and private foreign investors need only register with a state agency, rather than seek government approval. Economic prospects Medium-term prospects remain promising, with growth expected in the double digits after a dip in 2014, given Mongolia’s potential to develop its natural resources. Economic growth is forecast at 9.5% in 2014, driven in particular by the start of copper production at the Oyu Tolgoi open pit in June of last year. Growth in non-mineral output is expected to be held back by the tighter economic policy, which will be needed to reduce high domestic demand and so relieve BOP pressures. In particular, the overall budgetary deficit including off-budget outlays is expected to be lower than in 2013, as the DBM curtails investment expenditure and as BOM liquidity injections are expected to begin their phaseout this year. Economic growth is expected to pick up slightly to 10% in 2015, spurred by further development in mining, including the possible development of the Oyu Tolgoi underground mine and an expansion of coal production from the Tavan Tolgoi mine (Figure 3.12.8). Non-mining growth is expected to accelerate as restrictive economic policies are eased and FDI flows are assumed to partly recover. Inflation in 2014 is expected to increase to 11%, driven by the lagged effect of expansionary monetary policy in 2013 and the recent depreciation of
  11. 11. the togrog. Inflationary pressure in 2015 is expected to ease, assuming a tightening of economic policy in 2014 and a more stable exchange rate, with inflation falling to 8% consistent with BOM monetary policy (Figure 3.12.9). The current account deficit is forecast to fall to 20% of GDP in 2014 and 15% in 2015 as the trade balance improves. Exports are expected to grow following the start of Oyu Tolgoi production last year, and as new mining projects come onstream. The recent exchange rate depreciation and the expected tightening of economic policy will further constrain domestic absorption and dampen imports. The new investment law and 3.12.6 External balance indicators the planned second phase of Oyu Tolgoi development are expected to support a recovery in FDI inflows, further stabilizing the BOP. Mongolia’s economic prospects are subject to downside risks from an uncertain external environment and the continuation of expansionary economic policies at a time when the BOP is under pressure. The PRC is the main destination for Mongolia’s exports, accepting about 87% of them in 2013. Mongolia is thus highly vulnerable as the PRC rebalances from investment-led growth toward greater reliance of consumption, which may initially dampen demand for Mongolia’s exports. Environmental concerns in the PRC may also reduce coal consumption. Further, substantial increase in global supplies and growing competition are putting Mongolia’s mineral exports on an uncertain growth trajectory. Future trends in Mongolia’s major export prices are also uncertain (Figure 3.12.10). On the domestic front, the continuation of current monetary and fiscal policies will inevitably perpetuate BOP and inflationary pressures, requiring significant real economic adjustments that may curtail growth. Policy challenge—safeguarding macroeconomic and financial stability The main policy challenge is to adjust unsustainable macroeconomic policies to relieve BOP pressure, contain inflation, and reduce the risk of severe distress in the financial sector. Negative shocks to FDI and coal exports have intensified BOP pressures since mid-2012. These pressures have been compounded by highly expansionary fiscal and monetary policies that have
  12. 12. spurred substantial credit expansion and debt accumulation, as well as boosted demand for imports. While current foreign exchange reserves are broadly adequate, the declining trend is not sustainable. The resumption of significant foreign capital inflows may take some time despite the adoption of the new investment law. Current policy offers little room to strengthen financial buffers to cope with possible external shocks. Mongolia needs to change course to mitigate its vulnerability to external shocks. Addressing these challenges requires a comprehensive package of economic policy reforms, but improvements to monetary management and fiscal policy are the most urgent. Monetary policy should focus on macroeconomic and financial stability. The priority should be to gradually phase out the BOM’s quasi-fiscal lending programs—or, if they are considered high priority, include them in the budget. Procyclical fiscal policy is a major concern, although the discipline of the FSL, if adhered to in practice and in spirit, would reduce the scope for such a policy. Needed fiscal reforms include reprioritizing and reducing public expenditure, incorporating DBM off- budget expenditure into the budget (thereby subjecting it to the FSL), and developing a medium-term fiscal framework to reduce the consolidated, on- and off-budget deficit to the law’s 2% ceiling. Expenditure reform should include improving the quality of public investment expenditure, which has come under strain in view of the rapid increase in public investment. Reference : www.adb.org History The Mongol Empire in World History
  13. 13. Timothy May 
 North Georgia College and State University World History and the Mongols An empire arose in the steppes of Mongolia in the thirteenth century that forever changed the map of the world, opened intercontinental trade, spawned new nations, changed the course of leadership in two religions, and impacted history indirectly in a myriad of other ways. At its height, the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire in history, stretching from the Sea of Japan to the Carpathian Mountains. Although its impact on Eurasia during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries was enormous, the Mongol Empire's influence on the rest of the world—particularly its legacy—should not be ignored. Brief History The formation of the Mongol Empire was a slow and arduous process, beginning with the unification of the Mongol and Turkic tribes that dwelt in the Mongolian steppes. Temüjin (1165-1227) emerged on the steppes as a charismatic leader, slowly gaining a following before becoming a nökhör (companion or vassal)to Toghril (d. 1203/1204), Khan of the Kereits, the dominant tribe in central Mongolia. While in the service of Toghril, Temüjin's talents allowed him to become a major leader among the Mongol tribes. Eventually, Temüjin's increase in power and the jealousy it provoked among other members of Toghril's supporters caused Temüjin and Toghril to part ways and ultimately to clash in battle. Their quarrel came to a head in 1203 with Temüjin emerging as the victor. Temüjin unified the tribes of Mongolia by 1206 into a single supra-tribe known as the Khamag Mongol Ulus or the All Mongol State. In doing so, Temüjin reorganized the social structure by dissolving old tribal lines and regrouping them into an army based on a decimal system (units of 10, 100, and 1000). Furthermore, he instilled a strong sense of discipline into the army. Although he had defeated all of his rivals by 1204, it was not until 1206 that Temüjin's followers recognized him as the sole authority in Mongolia by granting him the title of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan), meaning Firm, Fierce, or Resolute Ruler.1 Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol power quickly extended beyond Mongolia, as the Mongols conquered the
  14. 14. Tangut kingdom Xixia (modern Ningxia and Gansu provinces of China) by 1209.2 In 1211 Chinggis Khan invaded the Jin Empire (1125-1234) of Northern China. Although these campaigns began as raids, as their successes increased the Mongols retained the territory they plundered after resistance ceased. Although the Mongols won stunning victories and conquered most of the Jin Empire by 1216, the Jin opposition to the Mongols continued until 1234, seven years after the death of Chinggis Khan.3 Mongol expansion into Central Asia began in 1209, as the Mongols pursued tribal leaders who opposed Chinggis Khan's rise to power in Mongolia and thus constituted a threat to his authority there. With their victories, the Mongols gained new territory. Several smaller polities such as the Uighurs of the Tarim Basin also sought the protection of Chinggis Khan as vassals. Ultimately, the Mongols found themselves with a large empire, now bordering not only the Chinese states but also the Islamic world in Central Asia including the Khwarazmian Empire, which spanned over portions of Central Asia, Afghanistan, Iran, and part of modern Iraq.4 Initially, Chinggis Khan sought a peaceful commercial relationship with the Khwarazmian state. This abruptly came to an end with the massacre of a Mongol sponsored caravan by the governor of Otrar, a Khwarazmian border town. After diplomatic means failed to resolve the issue, Chinggis Khan left a token force in North China and marched against the Khwarazmians in 1218.5 After capturing Otrar, Chinggis Khan divided his army and struck the Khwarazmian Empire at several points. With his more numerous army spread across the empire in an attempt to defend its cities, Muhammad Khwarazmshah II could not compete with the more mobile Mongol army in the field. For the Muslim population, their defeat went beyond simple military conquest; it seemed that God had forsaken them. Indeed, the Mongols cultivated this idea. After capturing Bukhara, Chinggis Khan ascended the pulpit in the Friday mosque and announced: O people, know that you have committed great sins, and that the great ones among you have committed these sins. If you ask me what proof I have for these words, I say it is because I am the punishment of God. If you had not committed great sins, God would not have sent a punishment like me upon you.6 Meanwhile, Muhammad II watched his cities fall one by one until he fled with a Mongol force in pursuit. He successfully eluded them and escaped to an island in the Caspian Sea, where he died shortly thereafter from dysentery. Although his son, Jalal al-
  15. 15. Din (d. 1230) attempted to rally the empire in Afghanistan, Chinggis Khan defeated him near the Indus River in 1221, forcing Jalal al-Din to flee to India. The Khwarazmian Empire was now ripe for annexation but Chinggis Khan kept only the territory north of the Amu Darya, thus not over-extending his army. He then returned to Mongolia in order to deal with a rebellion in Xixia which broke out while the Mongol leader was in Central Asia.7 After resting his army, he invaded Xixia in 1227 and besieged the capital of Zhongxing. During the course of the siege, Chinggis Khan died from injuries sustained from a fall from his horse while hunting. Yet he ordered his sons and army to continue the war against Xixia. Indeed, even as he lay ill in his bed, Chinggis Khan instructed them, "While I take my meals you must talk about the killing and the destruction of the Tang'ut and say, 'Maimed and tamed, they are no more.'"8 The army that Chinggis Khan organized was the key to Mongol expansion. It fought and operated in a fashion that other medieval armies did not, or could not, replicate.9 In essence it operated very much as a modern army does, over multiple fronts and in several corps but in a coordinated effort. Also, the Mongols fought in the manner of total war. The only result that mattered was the defeat of enemies through any means necessary, including ruses and trickery. The famous traveler, Marco Polo, observed In truth they are stout and valiant soldiers, and inured to war. And you perceive that it is just when the enemy sees them run, and imagines that he gained the battle, that he has in reality lost it, for the [Mongols] wheel round in a moment when they judge the right time has come. And after his fashion they have won many a fight.10 Empire after Chinggis Khan Ögödei (d.1240-41), Chinggis Khan's second son, ascended the throne in 1230 and quickly resumed operations against the Jin Empire, successfully conquering it in 1234. Although Chinggis Khan had announced previously that he had been sent as the scourge of God, Ögödei promoted the idea that Heaven (Tengri the sky god) had declared that the Mongols were destined to rule the world. Before invading a region, Mongol envoys delivered correspondence indicating that as Heaven had decreed that the Mongols were to rule the earth, a prince should come to the Mongol court and offer his submission. Any refusal to this request was seen as an act of rebellion not only against the Mongols, but also against the will of Heaven. This process was aided by a multi-ethnic bureaucracy staffed not only by Mongols, but in fact in large part by the educated elites from the sedentary conquered populations such as Chinese, Persians, and Uighurs. Thus the letters
  16. 16. were translated and delivered in triplicate—each one being in another language so that there was a high probability that someone at the other court could read the letter. Ögödei backed his intentions of world domination by sending armies out to multiple fronts. While Ögödei led his army against the Jin, another army conquered Iran, Armenia, and Georgia under the command of Chormaqan (d.1240). Meanwhile, a massive force under the leadership of Prince Batu (fl. 1227-1255) and Sübedei (1176-1248), the renowned Mongol general, marched west, conquering the Russian principalities and the Pontic and Caspian steppes before invading Hungary and Poland. While they did not seek to control Hungary and Poland, the Mongols left both areas devastated before departing, possibly due to Ögödei's death in 1241.11 Ögödei's son, Güyük, came to the throne in 1246 only after a lengthy debate over who would succeed his father. In the interim, Güyük's mother Toregene served as regent. Once in power, Güyük accomplished little in terms of conquest as he died in 1248. His wife, Oghul-Qaimish, served as regent but did little to assist in choosing a new khan. Her inattention led to a coup in which Möngke b. Tolui (d. 1250-51) seized power with the backing of most of the Chinggisid princes in 1250. Under his reign the Mongol armies were once again on the march. He and his brother Qubilai (d. 1295) led armies into the territory of China's Southern Song (1126-1279), south of the Yangtze River, while Hülegü (d. 1265), another brother, led an army into the Middle East. Hülegü's forces successfully destroyed the Ismailis in 1256, a Shi'a group in northern Iran also known as the Assassins. The Persian chronicler, Juvaini, who also worked in the Mongol bureaucracy, reveled in the destruction of the much feared Ismailis, who used assassination in order to intimidate and extend their influence in parts of the Middle East. Juvaini wrote that "So was the world cleansed which had been polluted by their evil. Wayfarers now ply to and fro without fear or dread or the inconvenience of paying a toll and pray for the fortune of the happy King who uprooted their foundations and left no trace of anyone of them."12 Hülegü then moved against the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad. The Caliph, nominally the titular leader of Sunni Islam, refused to capitulate but did little to defend the city. The Mongols sacked Baghdad and executed the Caliph, ending the position of Caliph among the Sunnis in 1258. Hülegü's armies invaded Syria, successfully capturing Aleppo and Damascus. Hülegü however, withdrew the bulk of his army in 1259-60 after receiving news that Mongke had died during the war against the Song. Meanwhile, the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt struck the Mongol garrisons in Syria, defeating them at Ayn Jalut in
  17. 17. 1260. As the Mongol Empire spiraled into civil war after the death of Mongke, Hülegü never recovered the Syrian conquests. Instead, civil war with the Mongols in the Pontic and Caspian steppes (the so-called Golden Horde), and those in Central Asia, occupied much of his attention. Due to the lack of a clear principle of succession other than being descended from Chinggis Khan, warfare between rival claimants was frequent. Civil war erupted after Möngke's death as two of his brothers vied for the throne. Qubilai eventually defeated Ariq Boke in 1265, but the damage to the territorial integrity of the Empire was great. While the other princes nominally accepted Qubilai as the Khan of the empire, his influence dwindled outside of Mongolia and China. Qubilai and his successors, known as the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), found their closest allies in Hülegü and his successors. Hülegü's kingdom, known as the Il-khanate of Persia, dominated Iran, Iraq, modern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Central Asia was ruled by the Chaghatayids, the descendents of Chaghatay, Chinggis Khan's third son, although often they were the puppets of Qaidu, a descendent of Ögödei and rival of Qubilai Khan. Meanwhile in Russia and the Pontic and Caspian steppes, descendents of Jochi, Chinggis Khan's first son, held power. Their state was often referred to as the Golden Horde in later periods. Since the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous state in history, its impact on world history is incalculable as it impacted the pre-modern world in a variety of ways, both directly and indirectly. To discuss this impact, one could write a monograph, thus this discussion will be limited to an overview of only three areas: geography, trade, and religion. Reference : http://worldhistoryconnected.press.illinois.edu/5.2/may.html Genghis Khan Genghis Khan (/ˈɡ ɛ ŋɡ ɪ sˈkɑ ˈn/ or /ˈdʒ ɛ ŋɡ ɪ sˈkɑ ˈn/,[5][6]Mongol: [tʃ iŋɡ ɪ s xaˈŋ]( listen); Chingis/Chinghis Khan; 1162? – August 1227), born Temujin, was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadictribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire and being
  18. 18. proclaimed "Genghis Khan," he started the Mongol invasions that resulted in the conquest of most of Eurasia. These included raids or invasions of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid Empire, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by wholesale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarezmian controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China. Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor and split his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons.[7] He died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. He was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia at an unknown location[ citation needed] . His descendants went on to stretch the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states out of all of modern-day China, Korea, the Caucasus, Central Asian countries, and substantial portions of modern Eastern Europe, Russia and the Middle East. Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories.[8] Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He also promoted religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, and created a unified empire from the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.[9] Vilified throughout most of history for the brutality of his campaigns, Genghis Khan is also credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment. This increased communication and trade from Northeast Asia to Muslim Southwest Asia and Christian Europe, thus expanding the horizons of all three cultural areas. Historians have noted that Genghis Khan instituted meritocracy, and encouraged religious tolerance. Reference : www.wikipedia.org/genghis_khan History of Mongolia
  19. 19. 7th century finds found 180km from Ulaanbaatar. Kept in Ulaanbaatar. A constant theme in Mongolian history is relations with China. Mongolia, since prehistoric times, has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to prominence. The first of these, the Xiongnu of undetermined ethnicity, were brought together to form a confederation by Modu Shanyu in 209 BC. Soon they emerged as the greatest threat to the Qin Dynasty, forcing the latter to construct the Great Wall of China, itself being guarded by up to almost 300,000 soldiers during marshal Meng Tian's tenure, as a means of defense against the destructive Xiongnu raids. The vast Xiongnu empire (209 BC-93 AD) was followed by the Mongolic Xianbei empire (93–234) which also ruled more than the entirety of present-day Mongolia. The Mongolic Rouran Khaganate (330–555), of Xianbei provenance, ruled a massive empire before being defeated by the Göktürks (555–745) whose empire was even bigger (laid siege to Panticapaeum, present-day Kerch, in 576). They were succeeded by the Uyghur Khaganate (745–840) who were defeated by the Kyrgyz. The Mongolic Khitans, descendants of the Xianbei, ruled Mongolia during the Liao Dynasty (907–1125), after which the Khamag Mongol (1125–1206) rose to prominence. In the chaos of the late 12th century, a chieftain named Temüjin finally succeeded in uniting the Mongol tribes (belonging to the Shiwei branch of the Mongolic Xianbei) between Manchuria and the Altai Mountains. In 1206, he took the title Genghis Khan, and waged a series of military campaigns – renowned for their brutality and ferocity – sweeping through much of Asia, and forming the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Under his successors it stretched from present-day Ukraine in the west to Korea in the east, and from Siberia in the north to the Gulf of Oman and Vietnam in the south, covering some 33,000,000 square kilometres
  20. 20. (13,000,000 sq mi),[21] (22% of Earth's total land area) and having a population of over 100 million people. The emergence of Pax Mongolica also significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia during its height.[22][23] After Genghis Khan's death, the empire was subdivided into four kingdoms or Khanates which eventually became quasi-independent after the Toluid Civil War (1260–1264) caused by Möngke's death in 1259. One of the khanates, the "Great Khaanate", consisting of the Mongol homeland and China, became the Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan. He set up his capital in present day Beijing but after more than a century of power, the Yuan was replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368, with the Mongol court fleeing to the north. As the Ming armies pursued the Mongols into their homeland, they successfully sacked and destroyed the Mongol capital Karakorum among a few other cities, although some of these attempts were repelled by the Mongols under Ayushridar and his general Köke Temür.[citation needed] Tuvkhun Monastery built in 1653 by Zanabazar. Here he invented the Soyombo script in 1686. After the expulsion of the Yuan Dynasty rulers from China, the Mongols continued to rule Mongolia, also referred to as the Northern Yuan. The next centuries were marked by violent power struggles among various factions, notably the Genghisids and the non-Genghisid Oirads, as well as by several Chinese invasions (like the five expeditions led by the Yongle Emperor). In the early 15th century, the Oirads under Esen Tayisi gained the upper hand, and even raided China in 1449 in a conflict over Esen's right to pay tribute, capturing the Ming emperor in the process. However, Esen was murdered in 1454, and the Borjigids recovered.[citation needed]
  21. 21. Batumöngke Dayan Khan and his khatun Mandukhai reunited the entire Mongol nation under the Genghisids in the early 16th century. In the mid-16th century, Altan Khan of the Tümed, a grandson of Dayan Khan – but no legitimate Khan himself – became powerful. He founded Hohhot in 1557 and his meeting with the Dalai Lama in 1578 sparked the second introduction of Tibetan Buddhism to Mongolia. Abtai Khan of the Khalkha converted to Buddhism and founded the Erdene Zuu monastery in 1585. His grandson Zanabazar became the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu in 1640. The entire Mongolian population embraced Buddhism. Each family kept scriptures and Buddha statues on an altar at the north side of their ger (yurt). Mongolian nobles donated land, money and herders to the monasteries. The top monasteries wielded significant temporal power besides spiritual power.[citation needed] An image of an early 20th-century Oirat caravan, traveling on horseback, possibly to trade goods. The last Mongol Khan was Ligden Khan in the early 17th century. He got into conflicts with the Manchus over the looting of Chinese cities, and managed to alienate most Mongol tribes. He died in 1634 on his way to Tibet, in an attempt to evade the Manchus and destroy the Yellow Hat sect of Buddhism. By 1636, most Inner Mongolian tribes had submitted to the Manchus, who founded the Qing Dynasty. The Khalkha eventually submitted to Qing rule in 1691, thus bringing all of today's Mongolia under Manchu's rule. After several wars, the Dzungars (the western Mongols or Oirats) were virtually annihilated during the Qing conquest of Dzungaria in 1757–58.[24] Some scholars estimate that about 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungars were destroyed by a combination of disease and warfare.[25] Outer Mongolia was given relative autonomy, being administered by the hereditary Genghisid khanates of Tusheet Khan, Setsen Khan, Zasagt Khan and Sain Noyon Khan. The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu of Mongolia had immense de facto authority.
  22. 22. The Manchus also forbade mass Chinese immigration, allowing the Mongols to keep their culture. The main trade route during this period was the Tea Road which had permanent stations located every 25 to 30 kilometres (16 to 19 mi) each of which was staffed by 5–30 chosen families. Urga (present-day Ulaanbaatar) benefited greatly from this overland trade as it was the only major settlement in Outer Mongolia used as a stopover point by merchants, officials and travelers on the Tea Road.[citation needed] Until 1911, the Qing Dynasty maintained control of Mongolia with a series of alliances and intermarriages, as well as military and economic measures. Ambans, Manchu "high officials", were installed in Khüree, Uliastai, and Khovd, and the country was subdivided into ever more feudal and ecclesiastical fiefdoms. Over the course of the 19th century, the feudal lords attached more importance to representation and less importance to the responsibilities towards their subjects. The behaviour of Mongolia's nobility, together with the usurious practices of the Chinese traders and the collection of imperial taxes in silver instead of animals, resulted in poverty becoming ever more rampant. By 1911 there were 700 large and small monasteries in Outer Mongolia and 115,000 monks who made up 21% of the population. Apart from the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu there were 13 other reincarnating high-lamas called 'seal-holding saints' (tamgatai khutuktu) in Outer Mongolia. The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu With the fall of the Manchu's Qing Dynasty, Mongolia under the Bogd Khaan declared independence in 1911. However, the newly established Republic of China considered Mongolia to be part of its own territory. Bogd Khaan said to Yuan Shikai, the President of the Republic of China "I established own state before you, the Mongols and Chinese have different origin, our languages and scripts are different. You're not the Manchu's descents, so how can you think China is the Manchu's successor?".[26]
  23. 23. The area controlled by the Bogd Khaan was approximately that of the former Outer Mongolia during the Qing period. In 1919, after the October Revolution in Russia, Chinese troops led by Xu Shuzheng occupied Mongolia. However, as a result of the Russian Civil War, the White Russian Lieutenant General Baron Ungern led his troops into Mongolia in October 1920, defeating the Chinese forces in Niislel Khüree (Ulaanbaatar) in early February 1921. In order to eliminate the threat posed by Ungern, Bolshevik Russia decided to support the establishment of a communist Mongolian government and army. This Mongolian army took the Mongolian part of Kyakhta from Chinese forces on March 18, 1921, and on July 6 Russian and Mongolian troops arrived in Khüree. Mongolia's independence was declared once again on July 11, 1921.[27] These events led to Mongolia's close alignment with the Soviet Union over the next seven decades. It was a National Democratic Revolution, but not communist. In 1924, after the Bogd Khaan died of laryngeal cancer[28] or, as some sources claim, at the hands of Russian spies,[29] the country's political system was changed and a Mongolian People's Republic was established. In 1928, Khorloogiin Choibalsan rose to power. The early leaders of the Mongolian People's Republic (1921-1952) were not communists and many of them were Pan-Mongolists. The Soviet Union thus forcefully established a communist regime in Mongolia by exterminating Pan-Mongolists later. Soviets recognized the Mongolian People's Party as "real" communists in the 1960s after the suspicious death of Pan-Mongolist leader Choibalsan. Khorloogiin Choibalsan instituted collectivisation of livestock, began the destruction of the Buddhist monasteries and the Stalinist repressions in Mongolia - resulting in the murder of monks and others. In Mongolia during the 1920s, approximately one-third of the male population were monks. By the beginning of the 20th century, about 750 monasteries were functioning in Mongolia.[30] The Stalinist purges in Mongolia that began in 1937 affected the
  24. 24. Republic by killing more than 30,000 people. Russia stopped Buryats migration to the Mongolian People's Republic in 1930 to prevent Mongolian reunification. All leaders of Mongolia who did not recognise Russian demands to perform terror against Mongolians were executed by Russians including Peljidiin Genden and Anandyn Amar. Choibalsan suspiciously died in Russia in 1952. Comintern leader Bohumír Šmeral said "People of Mongolia are not important, the land is important. Mongolian land is larger than England, France and Germany".[26] Japanese imperialism became even more alarming after the invasion of neighboring Manchuria in 1931. During the Soviet-Japanese Border War of 1939, the Soviet Union successfully defended Mongolia against Japanese expansionism. Mongolia fought against Japan during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 and during the Soviet–Japanese War in August 1945 to liberate Southern Mongolia from Japan and China. The Soviet threat of seizing parts of Inner Mongolia[citation needed] induced China to recognize Outer Mongolia's independence, provided that a referendum be held. The referendum took place on October 20, 1945, with (according to official numbers) 100% of the electorate voting for independence.[citation needed] After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, both countries confirmed their mutual recognition on October 6, 1949. On January 26, 1952, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal took power. While Tsedenbal was visiting Moscow in August 1984, his severe illness prompted the parliament to announce his retirement and replace him with Jambyn Batmönkh.[citation needed] The collapse of the Soviet Union strongly influenced Mongolian politics, leading to the peaceful Democratic Revolution and the introduction of a multi- party system and market economy. A new constitution was introduced in 1992, and the "People's Republic" was dropped from the country's name. The transition to market economy was often rocky. The early 1990s saw high inflation and food shortages.[citation needed] The first election wins for non-
  25. 25. communist parties came in 1993 (presidential elections) and 1996 (parliamentary elections). The signing of the Oyu Tolgoi mine contract is considered a major milestone in modern Mongolian history. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party renamed itself the Mongolian People's Party in 2010.[citation needed] Reference : www.wikipedia.org/mongolia BBC TIMELINE OF MONGOLIAN HISTORY 1206-63 - Following unification of the Mongol tribes, Genghis Khan launches a campaign of conquest. His sons and grandsons create the world's biggest land empire. 1267-1368 - Weakened by disunity, the empire implodes. Ming troops oust the Mongols from Dadu - present-day Beijing. 1380 - The Golden Horde is defeated by the Russian Prince Dmitriy Donskoy. Ming troops destroy the Mongol capital, Karakorum. Manchu rule 1636 - The Manchu (Qing) empire conquers the southern Mongols, creating Inner Mongolia. 1691 - The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia. 1727 - The Treaty of Kyakhta fixes the western border between the Russian and Manchu empires, confirming Qing dominion over Mongolia and Tuva. First Soviet satellite state 1911 - The Qing dynasty falls and Outer Mongolia declares its independence. Russia and the Republic of China recognise its autonomy. 1919 - The Chinese army occupies Outer Mongolia.
  26. 26. 1920 - Mongolian revolutionaries found the Mongolian People's Party and open contact with Bolsheviks in Siberia. Continue reading the main story Religion Ganden monastery survived 1930s Stalinist purges 2003: Mongolia's return to religion 1921 - With Red Army support, Mongolian revolutionaries drive out Chinese and Tsarist forces and install the Mongolian "people's government". 1924 - The People's Party chooses Lenin's "road to socialism bypassing capitalism" and renames itself the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP). The Mongolian People's Republic is proclaimed. Purges 1928-32 - "Rightists" who want private enterprise are ousted. "Leftists" who want communes are ousted. A "counter- revolutionary uprising" against the confiscation of monastery property is suppressed. 1937 - Mongolian Prime Minister Genden is arrested in the USSR and shot for spying for Japan. The Minister of War Marshal Demid is poisoned aboard a Trans-Siberian train. Monasteries are destroyed and lamas murdered. 1939 - Mongolian and Soviet troops commanded by General Zhukov defeat an invasion by Japanese and Manchukuo forces in the Battle of Halhyn Gol (Nomonhan). Continue reading the main story Capital: Ulan Bator Founded in the 17th century Ulan Bator translates as 'Red Hero' City is situated on the banks of the Tuul river 1939 - "Mongolia's Stalin", interior minister and new Minister of War Choybalsan, is appointed prime minister. Ex-PM Amar is tried
  27. 27. in the USSR and shot for spying for Japan. International recognition 1945-46 - Yalta conference agrees to preserve the status quo - Soviet control - in Mongolia. Mongolians vote for independence in a UN plebiscite. Mongolia is recognised by the Republic of China. 1949-55 - Relations established with the People's Republic of China. Railway built across Mongolia linking Russia and China. 1952 - Choybalsan dies, and is replaced as prime minister by Tsedenbal, the MPRP general secretary since 1940. 1961-63 - UN Security Council approves Mongolia's UN membership. Diplomatic relations established with the UK. Soviet buffer against China 1966 - Soviet Communist Party General-Secretary Brezhnev signs a friendship treaty in Ulan Bator allowing secret stationing of Soviet troops in Mongolia. 1973-81 - Mongolia accuses China of planning annexation, protests against Chinese leaders' call for withdrawal of Soviet troops, accuses China of "aggressive intentions" and expels some Chinese residents. 1984 - "Mongolia's Brezhnev", party General-Secretary Tsedenbal, head of state since 1974, is forced out of office by the MPRP Politburo. 1986 - Gorbachev's Vladivostok speech opens the way to detente with China and the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Mongolia. Democracy 1990 - Street demonstrations force resignation of the MPRP Politburo. Political parties are legalised. Elections to the Great Hural (parliament) are won by the MPRP, but 19 of the 50 seats in a new standing legislature go to non-communists. 1992 - Mongolia's new constitution gives first place to human rights and freedoms. In the first democratic elections the MPRP
  28. 28. wins 71 of the 76 seats in the new single-chamber Great Hural. 1993 - The first direct presidential elections are won by Ochirbat, nominated by the National and Social Democrats. Continue reading the main story Ex-president Bagabandi Ex-president Bagabandi promised to tackle corruption Elected 1997, re-elected in 2001 A Buddhist, educated in former Soviet Union Mongolia's ex-communists re-elected 2001- On the campaign trail with Bagabandi 1996 - The National and Social Democrats win 50 seats in the Great Hural elections, but the MPRP can deny a quorum, hindering passage of legislation. 1997 - MPRP candidate Bagabandi wins presidential election. 2000 - After the democrats form three new governments in two years the MPRP wins 72 seats in the Great Hural elections. The National and Social Democrats and three other parties form a new Democratic Party. 2001 February - UN launches appeal for $8.7m (£6m) to support herders suffering in worst winter conditions in more than 50 years. 2001 May - President Bagabandi re-elected. 2001 October - IMF approves nearly $40 million in low-interest loans over next three years to help tackle poverty and boost economic growth. 2002 November - Dalai Lama visits. China denounces trip and warns Mongolian leaders not to meet the Tibetan spiritual leader. 2003 July - It is announced that 200 soldiers will be sent to Iraq to contribute to peacekeeping.
  29. 29. 2004 January - Russia writes off all but $300 million of Mongolia's debts. Power-sharing 2004 June-August - Parliamentary elections, in which the opposition performs strongly, result in political deadlock over contested results. Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj is eventually appointed as prime minister following power-sharing deal. 2005 March-April - Protesters in the capital demand the government's resignation and an end to poverty and official corruption. 2005 May - MPRP candidate Nambaryn Enkhbayar wins presidential election. 2005 November - President George W Bush becomes the first serving US leader to visit Mongolia. 2006 January - Coalition government headed by Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj falls after the MPRP pulls out, blaming the leadership for slow economic growth. Parliament chooses MPRP's Miyeegombo Enkhbold as the new prime minister. 2007 November - Prime Minister Miyeegombo Enkhbold resigns. He is replaced by MPRP leader Sanjagiin Bayar. State of emergency 2008 July - President Enkhbayar declares a state of emergency to quell riots in the capital which left five dead and hundreds injured. Violence erupted after the opposition accused the governing party of rigging elections. 2009 May - Former Prime Minister and candidate of the opposition Democratic Party, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, wins presidential election, defeating incumbent Nambaryn Enkhbayar by a narrow margin. Governing MPRP says it accepts the result. 2009 October - Prime Minister Sanjagiin Bayar of the MPRP resigns for health reasons. Foreign Minister Sukhbaataryn Batbold succeeds him.
  30. 30. 2010 February - Extreme cold kills so much livestock that the United Nations launches a programme to pay herders to clean and collect carcasses. This will help maintain living standards while disposing of possible sources of disease. 2010 April - PM Sukhbaataryn Batbold takes over as head of governing MPRP from former PM Sanjagiin Bayar. 2010 September - Mongolian spy chief Bat Khurts is arrested on landing in Britain, sparking a diplomatic row. A court later rules that he can be extradited to Germany on kidnapping charges. 2010 November - Controversy as Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party reverts to Communist-era name of Mongolian People's Party. Ex-President Nambaryn Enkhbayar sets up small breakaway Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. Gobi desert development 2011 July - Mongolia selects the US Peabody Energy, China's Shenhua and a Russian-Mongolian consortium as partners to develop the highly sought-after Tavan Tolgoi coal deposit in the Gobi desert. Spy chief Bat Khurts loses appeal in Britain against extradition to Germany on kidnapping charges. 2011 October - Mongolia and Rio Tinto-owned Ivanhoe Mines reach agreement on stakeholding in the massive Oyu Tolgoi copper mine. Mongolia settles for a 34% share, as previously agreed, dropping demands for parity. 2011 November - Germany releases Mongolian spy chief Bat Khurts ahead of Chancellor Angela Merkel's visit to Mongolia. 2012 April - Mongolia puts Tavan Tolgoi coal mine deal on hold while it decides whether to go it alone on developing the project. It had earlier agreed to work with a group of US, Chinese and Russian companies. 2012 June - Parliamentary elections. Democratic Party wins most seats and goes on to form a coalition with the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party.
  31. 31. 2012 August - Former president Nambaryn Enkhbayar is sentenced to four years in jail for corruption. 2012 December - Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party threatens to leave governing coalition in protest at its former leader Enkhbayar's jail sentence. 2013 July - Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, from the Democratic Party, wins a second term as president. Reference : http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/5167718.stm

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