My brainstorm sheet
Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia, strategically
located between China and Russia. The terrain is one of
mountains and rolling plateaus, with a high degree of relief. The
total land area of Mongolia is 1,564,116 square kilometres.
Overall, the land slopes from the high Altay Mountains of the west
and the north to plains and depressions in the east and the south.
The Hüiten Peak in extreme western Mongolia on the Chinese
border is the highest point (4,374 metres). The lowest is 518
metres, an otherwise undistinguished spot in the eastern
Mongolian plain. The country has an average elevation of 1,580
metres. The landscape includes one of Asia's largest freshwater
lakes (Lake Khövsgöl), many salt lakes, marshes, sand dunes,
rolling grasslands, alpine forests, and permanent mountain
glaciers. Northern and western Mongolia are seismically active
zones, with frequent earthquakes and many hot springs and
extinct volcanoes. The nation's closest point to any ocean is
approximately 960 kilometres (600 mi) from the country's
easternmost tip bordering northern China to Chongjin in North
Korea along the coastline of the Sea of Japan.
Reference : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Mongolia
Khalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhch
Khalkha Mongol 90% (official), Turkic, Russian (1999)
Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist 2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2
2,953,190 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:139
0-14 years: 26.8% (male 404,051/female 388,546)
15-24 years: 18.7% (male 278,912/female 273,167)
25-54 years: 44.5% (male 636,799/female 677,236)
55-64 years: 4.1% (male 80,267/female 94,021)
65 years and over: 4% (male 49,314/female 70,877) (2014 est.)
total dependency ratio: 45.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 39.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 %
potential support ratio: 18.1 (2013)
total: 27.1 years
male: 26.3 years
female: 27.8 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.37% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:89
20.88 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:81
6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:156
Net migration rate:
-0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:145
urban population: 68.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
ULAANBAATAR (capital) 949,000 (2009)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
63 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world:96
Infant mortality rate:
total: 23.15 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world:79
male: 26.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.98 years
country comparison to the world:158
male: 64.72 years
female: 73.45 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.22 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world:100
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
5.3% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world:129
2.76 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density:
6.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 53.1% of population
total: 85.3% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 46.9% of population
total: 14.7% of population (2011 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
urban: 64% of population
rural: 29.1% of population
total: 53% of population
urban: 36% of population
rural: 70.9% of population
total: 47% of population (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world:161
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world:160
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world:140
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
country comparison to the world:122
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
country comparison to the world:88
5.5% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world:58
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.4%
female: 97.9% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2012)
Child labor - children ages 5-14:
total number: 106,203
percentage: 18 % (2005 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
country comparison to the world:100
female: 13.2% (2011)
Reference : CIA WORLD FACT BOOK
Over the past 20 years, Mongolia has transformed itself from a socialist
country to a vibrant multiparty democracy with a booming economy. Mongolia
is at the threshold of a major transformation driven by the exploitation of its
vast mineral resources and the share of mining in GDP today stands at 20
percent, twice the ratio of a decade ago. The economic growth rate is
estimated at 12.5 percent in 2013, compared to 6.4 percent GDP growth in
2010. GDP is expected to grow at a double digit rate over the period from
2013 to 2017.
This economic growth has translated into some benefits for the people of
Mongolia. Poverty has been on a downward trend over the past decade. Most
recently, it decreased from 38.7 percent in 2010 to 27.4 percent in 2012.
Substantial progress has also been made in regard to several Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) at the national level, though significant regional
To ensure sustainable and inclusive growth, Mongolia will need to strengthen
institutional capacity to manage public revenues efficiently and limit the
effects of Dutch Disease; allocate its resources effectively among spending,
investing, and saving; reduce poverty; and offer equal opportunities to all its
citizens in urban and rural areas. It needs to do this in a manner which
protects the environment and intergenerational equity.
Reference : www.worldbank.org
PHEW, America steps back from the "fiscal cliff" (or "kicks the
can down the road", to use perhaps a more appropriate
metaphor) and the world's stock indices, from the Hang Seng
to the Dow Jones, soar to their highest level in months.
Cynical Cassandra is not impressed. As The World in 2013
argues "the world economy's woes are far from over", with
only the emerging economies (a phrase that now seems to
cover countries that have long since emerged—witness
China, second only to America in economic weight) promising
robust growth for the coming year.
But it would be churlish for me to be so negative at the start of
a year, so let me direct readers to another, more cheerful, part
of The World in 2013: the list of the world's ten fastest-growing
The star performer will be Mongolia, followed by Macau. Both
should give thanks to China (number four on the list): it is
China's demand for Mongolia's minerals that is powering its
economy; and it is Chinese gamblers who fill the casinos of
Macau. China apart, the list consists of economies too small
to move the world's stock indices. But do they have attractions
that size cannot measure? Bhutan (at number five) is
undoubtedly beautiful and is blessed with hydroelectric power,
and, now that their various wars or periods of political
insurrection are over, there are surely advocates for Timor-
Leste and the East African duo of Mozambique and Rwanda.
Ghana, a model of stability in West Africa, has lots of fans—
and promising oil reserves, too. Libya (number three) and Iraq
(equal seventh) both have a lot of oil but not exactly great
stability. The sad thing, however, is that (unless my eyes
deceive me) of the fastest growing economies only China—
ranked 49th—makes it into the 80 countries in The World in
2013's list of the best places to be born this year. At the risk of
sounding heretical to readers of The Economist, economic
growth is clearly not the be-all and end-all of life…
Mongolia is challenged by significant external imbalances because foreign
direct investment has declined rapidly and some mineral exports remain weak.
Growth is forecast to moderate in 2014 and remain broadly stable in 2015,
inflation to decline, and the current account balance to improve over the next
2 years, assuming appropriate policies. The major policy priority is to address
pressures on the balance of payments and foreign exchange reserves.
The Mongolian economy grew by 11.7% in 2013, down from 12.4% in 2012.
Growth was boosted by highly expansionary fiscal and monetary policies to
compensate for the marked slowdown in coal exports and mine development
financed through foreign direct investment (FDI), which have been the drivers
of growth in recent years. Strong economic growth has helped reduce the
poverty rate by more than 11 percentage points in the past 2 years, to 27% in
Industrial production increased by 20.1% in 2013, contributing
5.1 percentage points to economic growth, driven by construction, which
expanded by 66%, boosted by monetary and fiscal stimulus. Mining output
expanded by 20.7%, thanks to the ramp-up of copper production at the vast
Oyu Tolgoi mine, which started in June 2013. Services expanded by 10.0%,
contributing 4.3 percentage points to economic growth. Favorable weather
allowed agriculture to expand by 13.5%, contributing 2.0 percentage points
Domestic consumption was the main driver of economic growth from the
expenditure side, increasing by 16.3% in constant prices and contributing 13.7
percentage points to growth. Gross capital formation increased by 2.1%,
contributing 1.5 percentage points, while net foreign trade and services
subtracted 3.6 percentage points (Figure 3.12.2).
The completion of the first phase of Oyu Tolgoi and a dramatic fall
in FDI reduced imports of capital goods, which led a 5.7% drop in imports of
goods. Exports of goods declined by 2.6% as coal exports
to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) plummeted by 40.7% owing to
abundant coal supplies in the PRC and growing competition from other major
The consumer price index rose by 10.4% in 2013. It had fallen in
the first half with the phase-out of the cash handout scheme and the
temporary impact of the price stabilization program of the Bank of Mongolia
(BOM), the central bank. Inflation rose subsequently, driven by currency
depreciation and expansionary fiscal and monetary policies (Figure 3.12.3).
Economic trends and prospects in developing Asia: East Asia
Fiscal policy became more expansionary in 2013 as the consolidated, on- and
off-budget fiscal deficit widened to 11.1% of GDP from 10.9% in 2012.
Excluding off budget spending, the cash deficit amounted to 1.4% of GDP,
lower than the 7.4% recorded in 2012, and the structural deficit reached 1.7%,
within the 2% ceiling of the Fiscal Stability Law (FSL). Actual government
revenue increased by 19.6%, less than the budgeted (and highly optimistic)
amount. Revenue shortages and implementation challenges reduced public
investment expenditure by 5.1%, holding the increase in government
expenditure to a mere 3.1% (Figure 3.12.4).
The Development Bank of Mongolia (DBM) has become the main source of
financing for off-budget spending, providing an amount
equal to 9.6% of GDP in 2013 mainly for projects such as roads that do not
generate revenue. The main source of DBM financing is proceeds from the
Chinggis bond and a 5-year, $580 million euro bond issued
in 2012, and the $290 million Samurai bond issued in December 2013. DBM
debt is guaranteed by the government and so a contingent liability for the
The ratio of public debt to GDP rose from 35.9% in 2010 to 63.0% in 2012,
and likely remained broadly unchanged in 2013, though no official data are
yet available. The external debt component equaled 48.3% of GDP in 2012. A
debt sustainability analysis conducted in 2013 by the International Monetary
Fund found Mongolia at moderate risk of debt distress, assuming a strong
policy scenario—no longer at low risk, as found by previous analyses. Public
debt sustainability has been impaired by the rising share of borrowing at
commercial rates since 2012.
To cushion the impact of declining FDI and boost credit growth, the BOM cut
the policy rate three times in 2013 by a total of 275 basis points to 10.5%. It
injected liquidity equal to 17.1% of GDP, including for onlending to selected
sectors through price stabilization and mortgage programs at subsidized
interest rates. Bank credit increased as a result by 41.0% year on year in
2013 and by 54.3% year on year to January 2014. Broad money (M2)
increased by 19.3% and 36.6% year on year during the same periods (Figure
3.12.5). These policies are widely seen as important factors behind balance-
of-payment (BOP) pressures starting last year.
Capitalization and liquidity in the banking system have improved, but
vulnerabilities remain. Weakness in bank supervision, inadequate provisioning,
high loan concentration (especially in construction), dollarization, and a high
and rising ratio of credit to deposits (at 103% in February 2014) have
heightened the risk of bank distress. Corporate governance needs to be
strengthened in the banking sector.
The current account deficit narrowed in 2013 to $3.2 billion, or 27.4% of GDP,
from 32.6% in 2012 (Figure 3.12.6). The trade deficit improved
to 18.1% of GDP from 22.8% in 2012 as the decline in imports outpaced that
of exports, but the services and transfers balance worsened. Since mid-2013,
the trade and current account deficits have both narrowed
as currency depreciation strengthened export competitiveness and
constrained imports—and as exports were boosted by the start of production
at the Oyu Tolgoi mine. FDI plunged by about 55% in 2013 because of
uncertainties arising from changes in the investment law, slower growth in the
PRC, the completion of the first phase of Oyu .
148 Asian Development Outlook 2014
Tolgoi, and delays in the expected commencement of the mine’s second
phase. Foreign exchange reserves almost halved in 2013, falling by
$1.9 billion to $2.2 billion, or 4 months of imports. They increased to $2.4
billion in January after the DBM issued a $290 million samurai bond 90%
guaranteed by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation.
The Mongolian togrog has depreciated by 27% against the US dollar since
early 2013 as capital inflows ebbed and market sentiment weakened over
prolonged debate surrounding Oyu Tolgoi issues and over uncertainty
regarding the regulatory framework for foreign investment. The nominal
effective exchange rate of the togrog fell by 15.5%, but the real effective
exchange rate fell by only 7.2% as inflation in Mongolia exceeded that of its
trading partners (Figure 3.12.7).
In October 2013, the parliament enacted a new comprehensive investment
law, which aims to encourage FDI over the medium-term by leveling the
playing field for foreign and domestic investors and ensuring a stable legal
environment for investment. Under the law, the category of “strategic investor”
no longer applies, and private foreign investors need only register with a state
agency, rather than seek government approval.
Medium-term prospects remain promising, with growth expected
in the double digits after a dip in 2014, given Mongolia’s potential to develop
its natural resources. Economic growth is forecast at 9.5% in 2014, driven in
particular by the start of copper production at the Oyu Tolgoi open pit in June
of last year. Growth in non-mineral output is expected to be held back by the
tighter economic policy, which will be needed to reduce high domestic
demand and so relieve BOP pressures. In particular, the overall budgetary
deficit including off-budget outlays is expected to be lower than in 2013, as
the DBM curtails investment expenditure and as BOM liquidity injections are
expected to begin their phaseout this year.
Economic growth is expected to pick up slightly to 10% in 2015, spurred by
further development in mining, including the possible development of the Oyu
Tolgoi underground mine and an expansion of coal production from the Tavan
Tolgoi mine (Figure 3.12.8). Non-mining growth is expected to accelerate as
restrictive economic policies are eased and FDI flows are assumed to partly
recover. Inflation in 2014 is expected to increase to 11%, driven by the lagged
effect of expansionary monetary policy in 2013 and the recent depreciation of
the togrog. Inflationary pressure in 2015 is expected to ease, assuming a
tightening of economic policy in 2014 and a more stable exchange rate, with
inflation falling to 8% consistent with BOM monetary policy (Figure 3.12.9).
The current account deficit is forecast to fall to 20% of GDP in 2014 and 15%
in 2015 as the trade balance improves. Exports are expected to grow
following the start of Oyu Tolgoi production last year, and as new mining
projects come onstream. The recent exchange rate depreciation and the
expected tightening of economic policy will further constrain domestic
absorption and dampen imports. The new investment law and
3.12.6 External balance indicators
the planned second phase of Oyu Tolgoi development are expected to
support a recovery in FDI inflows, further stabilizing the BOP.
Mongolia’s economic prospects are subject to downside risks from an
uncertain external environment and the continuation of expansionary
economic policies at a time when the BOP is under pressure. The PRC
is the main destination for Mongolia’s exports, accepting about 87% of them in
2013. Mongolia is thus highly vulnerable as the PRC rebalances from
investment-led growth toward greater reliance of consumption, which may
initially dampen demand for Mongolia’s exports. Environmental concerns in
the PRC may also reduce coal consumption. Further, substantial increase in
global supplies and growing competition are putting Mongolia’s mineral
exports on an uncertain growth trajectory. Future trends in Mongolia’s major
export prices are also uncertain (Figure 3.12.10). On the domestic front, the
continuation of current monetary and fiscal policies will inevitably perpetuate
BOP and inflationary pressures, requiring significant real economic
adjustments that may curtail growth.
Policy challenge—safeguarding macroeconomic and financial stability
The main policy challenge is to adjust unsustainable macroeconomic policies
to relieve BOP pressure, contain inflation, and reduce the risk of severe
distress in the financial sector. Negative shocks to FDI and coal exports have
intensified BOP pressures since mid-2012. These pressures have been
compounded by highly expansionary fiscal and monetary policies that have
spurred substantial credit expansion and debt accumulation, as well as
boosted demand for imports.
While current foreign exchange reserves are broadly adequate, the declining
trend is not sustainable. The resumption of significant foreign capital inflows
may take some time despite the adoption of the new investment law. Current
policy offers little room to strengthen financial buffers to cope with possible
external shocks. Mongolia needs to change course to mitigate its vulnerability
to external shocks.
Addressing these challenges requires a comprehensive package of economic
policy reforms, but improvements to monetary management and fiscal policy
are the most urgent. Monetary policy should focus
on macroeconomic and financial stability. The priority should be to gradually
phase out the BOM’s quasi-fiscal lending programs—or, if they are
considered high priority, include them in the budget. Procyclical fiscal policy is
a major concern, although the discipline of the FSL, if adhered to in practice
and in spirit, would reduce the scope for such a policy. Needed fiscal reforms
include reprioritizing and reducing public expenditure, incorporating DBM off-
budget expenditure into the budget (thereby subjecting it to the FSL), and
developing a medium-term fiscal framework to reduce the consolidated, on-
and off-budget deficit to
the law’s 2% ceiling. Expenditure reform should include improving the quality
of public investment expenditure, which has come under strain in view of the
rapid increase in public investment.
The Mongol Empire in World History
Timothy May North Georgia College and State University
World History and the Mongols
An empire arose in the steppes of Mongolia in the thirteenth century that forever
changed the map of the world, opened intercontinental trade, spawned new nations,
changed the course of leadership in two religions, and impacted history indirectly in a
myriad of other ways. At its height, the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous
empire in history, stretching from the Sea of Japan to the Carpathian Mountains.
Although its impact on Eurasia during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries was
enormous, the Mongol Empire's influence on the rest of the world—particularly its
legacy—should not be ignored.
The formation of the Mongol Empire was a slow and arduous process, beginning with
the unification of the Mongol and Turkic tribes that dwelt in the Mongolian steppes.
Temüjin (1165-1227) emerged on the steppes as a charismatic leader, slowly gaining a
following before becoming a nökhör (companion or vassal)to Toghril (d. 1203/1204),
Khan of the Kereits, the dominant tribe in central Mongolia. While in the service of
Toghril, Temüjin's talents allowed him to become a major leader among the Mongol
tribes. Eventually, Temüjin's increase in power and the jealousy it provoked among other
members of Toghril's supporters caused Temüjin and Toghril to part ways and ultimately
to clash in battle. Their quarrel came to a head in 1203 with Temüjin emerging as the
Temüjin unified the tribes of Mongolia by 1206 into a single supra-tribe known as the
Khamag Mongol Ulus or the All Mongol State. In doing so, Temüjin reorganized the
social structure by dissolving old tribal lines and regrouping them into an army based on a
decimal system (units of 10, 100, and 1000). Furthermore, he instilled a strong sense of
discipline into the army. Although he had defeated all of his rivals by 1204, it was not
until 1206 that Temüjin's followers recognized him as the sole authority in Mongolia by
granting him the title of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan), meaning Firm, Fierce, or
Expansion of the Mongol Empire
Mongol power quickly extended beyond Mongolia, as the Mongols conquered the
Tangut kingdom Xixia (modern Ningxia and Gansu provinces of China) by 1209.2
1211 Chinggis Khan invaded the Jin Empire (1125-1234) of Northern China. Although
these campaigns began as raids, as their successes increased the Mongols retained the
territory they plundered after resistance ceased. Although the Mongols won stunning
victories and conquered most of the Jin Empire by 1216, the Jin opposition to the
Mongols continued until 1234, seven years after the death of Chinggis Khan.3
Mongol expansion into Central Asia began in 1209, as the Mongols pursued tribal
leaders who opposed Chinggis Khan's rise to power in Mongolia and thus constituted a
threat to his authority there. With their victories, the Mongols gained new territory.
Several smaller polities such as the Uighurs of the Tarim Basin also sought the protection
of Chinggis Khan as vassals. Ultimately, the Mongols found themselves with a large
empire, now bordering not only the Chinese states but also the Islamic world in Central
Asia including the Khwarazmian Empire, which spanned over portions of Central Asia,
Afghanistan, Iran, and part of modern Iraq.4
Initially, Chinggis Khan sought a peaceful commercial relationship with the
Khwarazmian state. This abruptly came to an end with the massacre of a Mongol
sponsored caravan by the governor of Otrar, a Khwarazmian border town. After
diplomatic means failed to resolve the issue, Chinggis Khan left a token force in North
China and marched against the Khwarazmians in 1218.5
After capturing Otrar, Chinggis Khan divided his army and struck the Khwarazmian
Empire at several points. With his more numerous army spread across the empire in an
attempt to defend its cities, Muhammad Khwarazmshah II could not compete with the
more mobile Mongol army in the field. For the Muslim population, their defeat went
beyond simple military conquest; it seemed that God had forsaken them. Indeed, the
Mongols cultivated this idea. After capturing Bukhara, Chinggis Khan ascended the
pulpit in the Friday mosque and announced:
O people, know that you have committed great sins, and that the great ones among you
have committed these sins. If you ask me what proof I have for these words, I say it is
because I am the punishment of God. If you had not committed great sins, God would not
have sent a punishment like me upon you.6
Meanwhile, Muhammad II watched his cities fall one by one until he fled with a
Mongol force in pursuit. He successfully eluded them and escaped to an island in the
Caspian Sea, where he died shortly thereafter from dysentery. Although his son, Jalal al-
Din (d. 1230) attempted to rally the empire in Afghanistan, Chinggis Khan defeated him
near the Indus River in 1221, forcing Jalal al-Din to flee to India.
The Khwarazmian Empire was now ripe for annexation but Chinggis Khan kept only
the territory north of the Amu Darya, thus not over-extending his army. He then returned
to Mongolia in order to deal with a rebellion in Xixia which broke out while the Mongol
leader was in Central Asia.7
After resting his army, he invaded Xixia in 1227 and
besieged the capital of Zhongxing. During the course of the siege, Chinggis Khan died
from injuries sustained from a fall from his horse while hunting. Yet he ordered his sons
and army to continue the war against Xixia. Indeed, even as he lay ill in his bed, Chinggis
Khan instructed them, "While I take my meals you must talk about the killing and the
destruction of the Tang'ut and say, 'Maimed and tamed, they are no more.'"8
The army that Chinggis Khan organized was the key to Mongol expansion. It fought
and operated in a fashion that other medieval armies did not, or could not, replicate.9
essence it operated very much as a modern army does, over multiple fronts and in several
corps but in a coordinated effort. Also, the Mongols fought in the manner of total war.
The only result that mattered was the defeat of enemies through any means necessary,
including ruses and trickery. The famous traveler, Marco Polo, observed
In truth they are stout and valiant soldiers, and inured to war. And you perceive that it is
just when the enemy sees them run, and imagines that he gained the battle, that he has in
reality lost it, for the [Mongols] wheel round in a moment when they judge the right time
has come. And after his fashion they have won many a fight.10
Empire after Chinggis Khan
Ögödei (d.1240-41), Chinggis Khan's second son, ascended the throne in 1230 and
quickly resumed operations against the Jin Empire, successfully conquering it in 1234.
Although Chinggis Khan had announced previously that he had been sent as the scourge
of God, Ögödei promoted the idea that Heaven (Tengri the sky god) had declared that the
Mongols were destined to rule the world. Before invading a region, Mongol envoys
delivered correspondence indicating that as Heaven had decreed that the Mongols were to
rule the earth, a prince should come to the Mongol court and offer his submission. Any
refusal to this request was seen as an act of rebellion not only against the Mongols, but
also against the will of Heaven. This process was aided by a multi-ethnic bureaucracy
staffed not only by Mongols, but in fact in large part by the educated elites from the
sedentary conquered populations such as Chinese, Persians, and Uighurs. Thus the letters
were translated and delivered in triplicate—each one being in another language so that
there was a high probability that someone at the other court could read the letter.
Ögödei backed his intentions of world domination by sending armies out to multiple
fronts. While Ögödei led his army against the Jin, another army conquered Iran, Armenia,
and Georgia under the command of Chormaqan (d.1240). Meanwhile, a massive force
under the leadership of Prince Batu (fl. 1227-1255) and Sübedei (1176-1248), the
renowned Mongol general, marched west, conquering the Russian principalities and the
Pontic and Caspian steppes before invading Hungary and Poland. While they did not seek
to control Hungary and Poland, the Mongols left both areas devastated before departing,
possibly due to Ögödei's death in 1241.11
Ögödei's son, Güyük, came to the throne in 1246 only after a lengthy debate over who
would succeed his father. In the interim, Güyük's mother Toregene served as regent. Once
in power, Güyük accomplished little in terms of conquest as he died in 1248. His wife,
Oghul-Qaimish, served as regent but did little to assist in choosing a new khan. Her
inattention led to a coup in which Möngke b. Tolui (d. 1250-51) seized power with the
backing of most of the Chinggisid princes in 1250. Under his reign the Mongol armies
were once again on the march. He and his brother Qubilai (d. 1295) led armies into the
territory of China's Southern Song (1126-1279), south of the Yangtze River, while
Hülegü (d. 1265), another brother, led an army into the Middle East.
Hülegü's forces successfully destroyed the Ismailis in 1256, a Shi'a group in northern
Iran also known as the Assassins. The Persian chronicler, Juvaini, who also worked in the
Mongol bureaucracy, reveled in the destruction of the much feared Ismailis, who used
assassination in order to intimidate and extend their influence in parts of the Middle East.
Juvaini wrote that "So was the world cleansed which had been polluted by their evil.
Wayfarers now ply to and fro without fear or dread or the inconvenience of paying a toll
and pray for the fortune of the happy King who uprooted their foundations and left no
trace of anyone of them."12
Hülegü then moved against the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad. The Caliph, nominally
the titular leader of Sunni Islam, refused to capitulate but did little to defend the city. The
Mongols sacked Baghdad and executed the Caliph, ending the position of Caliph among
the Sunnis in 1258. Hülegü's armies invaded Syria, successfully capturing Aleppo and
Damascus. Hülegü however, withdrew the bulk of his army in 1259-60 after receiving
news that Mongke had died during the war against the Song. Meanwhile, the Mamluk
Sultanate of Egypt struck the Mongol garrisons in Syria, defeating them at Ayn Jalut in
1260. As the Mongol Empire spiraled into civil war after the death of Mongke, Hülegü
never recovered the Syrian conquests. Instead, civil war with the Mongols in the Pontic
and Caspian steppes (the so-called Golden Horde), and those in Central Asia, occupied
much of his attention.
Due to the lack of a clear principle of succession other than being descended from
Chinggis Khan, warfare between rival claimants was frequent. Civil war erupted after
Möngke's death as two of his brothers vied for the throne. Qubilai eventually defeated
Ariq Boke in 1265, but the damage to the territorial integrity of the Empire was great.
While the other princes nominally accepted Qubilai as the Khan of the empire, his
influence dwindled outside of Mongolia and China. Qubilai and his successors, known as
the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), found their closest allies in Hülegü and his successors.
Hülegü's kingdom, known as the Il-khanate of Persia, dominated Iran, Iraq, modern
Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Central Asia was ruled by the Chaghatayids,
the descendents of Chaghatay, Chinggis Khan's third son, although often they were the
puppets of Qaidu, a descendent of Ögödei and rival of Qubilai Khan. Meanwhile in
Russia and the Pontic and Caspian steppes, descendents of Jochi, Chinggis Khan's first
son, held power. Their state was often referred to as the Golden Horde in later periods.
Since the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous state in history, its impact on
world history is incalculable as it impacted the pre-modern world in a variety of ways,
both directly and indirectly. To discuss this impact, one could write a monograph, thus
this discussion will be limited to an overview of only three areas: geography, trade, and
Reference : http://worldhistoryconnected.press.illinois.edu/5.2/may.html
Genghis Khan (/ˈɡ ɛ ŋɡ ɪ sˈkɑ ˈn/ or
/ˈdʒ ɛ ŋɡ ɪ sˈkɑ ˈn/,Mongol: [tʃ iŋɡ ɪ s xaˈŋ]( listen);
Chingis/Chinghis Khan; 1162? – August 1227), born Temujin, was
the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire,
which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his
He came to power by uniting many of the nomadictribes of
northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire and being
proclaimed "Genghis Khan," he started the Mongol invasions that
resulted in the conquest of most of Eurasia. These included raids
or invasions of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid
Empire, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were
often accompanied by wholesale massacres of the civilian
populations – especially in the Khwarezmian controlled lands. By
the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial
portion of Central Asia and China.
Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his
successor and split his empire into khanates among his sons and
grandsons. He died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. He
was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia at an
. His descendants went on to
stretch the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering
or creating vassal states out of all of modern-day China, Korea, the
Caucasus, Central Asian countries, and substantial portions of
modern Eastern Europe, Russia and the Middle East. Many of
these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local
populations. As a result Genghis Khan and his empire have a
fearsome reputation in local histories.
Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also
advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways. He decreed the
adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing
system. He also promoted religious tolerance in the Mongol
Empire, and created a unified empire from the nomadic tribes of
northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the
founding father of Mongolia.
Vilified throughout most of history for the brutality of his
campaigns, Genghis Khan is also credited with bringing the Silk
Road under one cohesive political environment. This increased
communication and trade from Northeast Asia to Muslim
Southwest Asia and Christian Europe, thus expanding the horizons
of all three cultural areas. Historians have noted that Genghis
Khan instituted meritocracy, and encouraged religious tolerance.
Reference : www.wikipedia.org/genghis_khan
History of Mongolia
7th century finds found 180km from Ulaanbaatar. Kept in Ulaanbaatar. A
constant theme in Mongolian history is relations with China.
Mongolia, since prehistoric times, has been inhabited by nomads who, from
time to time, formed great confederations that rose to prominence. The first of
these, the Xiongnu of undetermined ethnicity, were brought together to form a
confederation by Modu Shanyu in 209 BC. Soon they emerged as the
greatest threat to the Qin Dynasty, forcing the latter to construct the Great
Wall of China, itself being guarded by up to almost 300,000 soldiers during
marshal Meng Tian's tenure, as a means of defense against the destructive
Xiongnu raids. The vast Xiongnu empire (209 BC-93 AD) was followed by the
Mongolic Xianbei empire (93–234) which also ruled more than the entirety of
present-day Mongolia. The Mongolic Rouran Khaganate (330–555), of
Xianbei provenance, ruled a massive empire before being defeated by the
Göktürks (555–745) whose empire was even bigger (laid siege to
Panticapaeum, present-day Kerch, in 576). They were succeeded by the
Uyghur Khaganate (745–840) who were defeated by the Kyrgyz. The
Mongolic Khitans, descendants of the Xianbei, ruled Mongolia during the Liao
Dynasty (907–1125), after which the Khamag Mongol (1125–1206) rose to
In the chaos of the late 12th century, a chieftain named Temüjin finally
succeeded in uniting the Mongol tribes (belonging to the Shiwei branch of the
Mongolic Xianbei) between Manchuria and the Altai Mountains. In 1206, he
took the title Genghis Khan, and waged a series of military campaigns –
renowned for their brutality and ferocity – sweeping through much of Asia, and
forming the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire in world
history. Under his successors it stretched from present-day Ukraine in the
west to Korea in the east, and from Siberia in the north to the Gulf of Oman
and Vietnam in the south, covering some 33,000,000 square kilometres
(13,000,000 sq mi), (22% of Earth's total land area) and having a
population of over 100 million people. The emergence of Pax Mongolica also
significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia during its height.
After Genghis Khan's death, the empire was subdivided into four kingdoms or
Khanates which eventually became quasi-independent after the Toluid Civil
War (1260–1264) caused by Möngke's death in 1259. One of the khanates,
the "Great Khaanate", consisting of the Mongol homeland and China, became
the Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan. He set
up his capital in present day Beijing but after more than a century of power,
the Yuan was replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368, with the Mongol court
fleeing to the north. As the Ming armies pursued the Mongols into their
homeland, they successfully sacked and destroyed the Mongol capital
Karakorum among a few other cities, although some of these attempts were
repelled by the Mongols under Ayushridar and his general Köke
Tuvkhun Monastery built in 1653 by Zanabazar. Here he invented the
Soyombo script in 1686.
After the expulsion of the Yuan Dynasty rulers from China, the Mongols
continued to rule Mongolia, also referred to as the Northern Yuan. The next
centuries were marked by violent power struggles among various factions,
notably the Genghisids and the non-Genghisid Oirads, as well as by several
Chinese invasions (like the five expeditions led by the Yongle Emperor). In the
early 15th century, the Oirads under Esen Tayisi gained the upper hand, and
even raided China in 1449 in a conflict over Esen's right to pay tribute,
capturing the Ming emperor in the process. However, Esen was murdered in
1454, and the Borjigids recovered.
Batumöngke Dayan Khan and his khatun Mandukhai reunited the entire
Mongol nation under the Genghisids in the early 16th century. In the mid-16th
century, Altan Khan of the Tümed, a grandson of Dayan Khan – but no
legitimate Khan himself – became powerful. He founded Hohhot in 1557 and
his meeting with the Dalai Lama in 1578 sparked the second introduction of
Tibetan Buddhism to Mongolia. Abtai Khan of the Khalkha converted to
Buddhism and founded the Erdene Zuu monastery in 1585. His grandson
Zanabazar became the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu in 1640. The entire
Mongolian population embraced Buddhism. Each family kept scriptures and
Buddha statues on an altar at the north side of their ger (yurt). Mongolian
nobles donated land, money and herders to the monasteries. The top
monasteries wielded significant temporal power besides spiritual
An image of an early 20th-century Oirat caravan, traveling on horseback,
possibly to trade goods.
The last Mongol Khan was Ligden Khan in the early 17th century. He got into
conflicts with the Manchus over the looting of Chinese cities, and managed to
alienate most Mongol tribes. He died in 1634 on his way to Tibet, in an
attempt to evade the Manchus and destroy the Yellow Hat sect of Buddhism.
By 1636, most Inner Mongolian tribes had submitted to the Manchus, who
founded the Qing Dynasty. The Khalkha eventually submitted to Qing rule in
1691, thus bringing all of today's Mongolia under Manchu's rule. After several
wars, the Dzungars (the western Mongols or Oirats) were virtually annihilated
during the Qing conquest of Dzungaria in 1757–58.
Some scholars estimate that about 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungars
were destroyed by a combination of disease and warfare. Outer Mongolia
was given relative autonomy, being administered by the hereditary Genghisid
khanates of Tusheet Khan, Setsen Khan, Zasagt Khan and Sain Noyon Khan.
The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu of Mongolia had immense de facto authority.
The Manchus also forbade mass Chinese immigration, allowing the Mongols
to keep their culture. The main trade route during this period was the Tea
Road which had permanent stations located every 25 to 30 kilometres (16 to
19 mi) each of which was staffed by 5–30 chosen families. Urga (present-day
Ulaanbaatar) benefited greatly from this overland trade as it was the only
major settlement in Outer Mongolia used as a stopover point by merchants,
officials and travelers on the Tea Road.
Until 1911, the Qing Dynasty maintained control of Mongolia with a series of
alliances and intermarriages, as well as military and economic measures.
Ambans, Manchu "high officials", were installed in Khüree, Uliastai, and
Khovd, and the country was subdivided into ever more feudal and
ecclesiastical fiefdoms. Over the course of the 19th century, the feudal lords
attached more importance to representation and less importance to the
responsibilities towards their subjects. The behaviour of Mongolia's nobility,
together with the usurious practices of the Chinese traders and the collection
of imperial taxes in silver instead of animals, resulted in poverty becoming
ever more rampant. By 1911 there were 700 large and small monasteries in
Outer Mongolia and 115,000 monks who made up 21% of the population.
Apart from the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu there were 13 other reincarnating
high-lamas called 'seal-holding saints' (tamgatai khutuktu) in Outer Mongolia.
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
With the fall of the Manchu's Qing Dynasty, Mongolia under the Bogd Khaan
declared independence in 1911. However, the newly established Republic of
China considered Mongolia to be part of its own territory. Bogd Khaan said to
Yuan Shikai, the President of the Republic of China "I established own state
before you, the Mongols and Chinese have different origin, our languages and
scripts are different. You're not the Manchu's descents, so how can you think
China is the Manchu's successor?".
The area controlled by the Bogd Khaan was approximately that of the former
Outer Mongolia during the Qing period. In 1919, after the October Revolution
in Russia, Chinese troops led by Xu Shuzheng occupied Mongolia.
However, as a result of the Russian Civil War, the White Russian Lieutenant
General Baron Ungern led his troops into Mongolia in October 1920, defeating
the Chinese forces in Niislel Khüree (Ulaanbaatar) in early February 1921. In
order to eliminate the threat posed by Ungern, Bolshevik Russia decided to
support the establishment of a communist Mongolian government and army.
This Mongolian army took the Mongolian part of Kyakhta from Chinese forces
on March 18, 1921, and on July 6 Russian and Mongolian troops arrived in
Khüree. Mongolia's independence was declared once again on July 11,
1921. These events led to Mongolia's close alignment with the Soviet
Union over the next seven decades. It was a National Democratic Revolution,
but not communist.
In 1924, after the Bogd Khaan died of laryngeal cancer or, as some
sources claim, at the hands of Russian spies, the country's political
system was changed and a Mongolian People's Republic was established. In
1928, Khorloogiin Choibalsan rose to power. The early leaders of the
Mongolian People's Republic (1921-1952) were not communists and many of
them were Pan-Mongolists. The Soviet Union thus forcefully established a
communist regime in Mongolia by exterminating Pan-Mongolists later. Soviets
recognized the Mongolian People's Party as "real" communists in the 1960s
after the suspicious death of Pan-Mongolist leader Choibalsan.
Khorloogiin Choibalsan instituted collectivisation of livestock, began the
destruction of the Buddhist monasteries and the Stalinist repressions in
Mongolia - resulting in the murder of monks and others. In Mongolia during
the 1920s, approximately one-third of the male population were monks. By the
beginning of the 20th century, about 750 monasteries were functioning in
Mongolia. The Stalinist purges in Mongolia that began in 1937 affected the
Republic by killing more than 30,000 people. Russia stopped Buryats
migration to the Mongolian People's Republic in 1930 to prevent Mongolian
reunification. All leaders of Mongolia who did not recognise Russian demands
to perform terror against Mongolians were executed by Russians including
Peljidiin Genden and Anandyn Amar. Choibalsan suspiciously died in Russia
in 1952. Comintern leader Bohumír Šmeral said "People of Mongolia are not
important, the land is important. Mongolian land is larger than England,
France and Germany".
Japanese imperialism became even more alarming after the invasion of
neighboring Manchuria in 1931. During the Soviet-Japanese Border War of
1939, the Soviet Union successfully defended Mongolia against Japanese
expansionism. Mongolia fought against Japan during the Battles of Khalkhin
Gol in 1939 and during the Soviet–Japanese War in August 1945 to liberate
Southern Mongolia from Japan and China. The Soviet threat of seizing parts
of Inner Mongolia induced China to recognize Outer
Mongolia's independence, provided that a referendum be held. The
referendum took place on October 20, 1945, with (according to official
numbers) 100% of the electorate voting for independence.
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, both countries
confirmed their mutual recognition on October 6, 1949. On January 26, 1952,
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal took power.
While Tsedenbal was visiting Moscow in August 1984, his severe illness
prompted the parliament to announce his retirement and replace him with
Jambyn Batmönkh.
The collapse of the Soviet Union strongly influenced Mongolian politics,
leading to the peaceful Democratic Revolution and the introduction of a multi-
party system and market economy. A new constitution was introduced in 1992,
and the "People's Republic" was dropped from the country's name. The
transition to market economy was often rocky. The early 1990s saw high
inflation and food shortages. The first election wins for non-
communist parties came in 1993 (presidential elections) and 1996
(parliamentary elections). The signing of the Oyu Tolgoi mine contract is
considered a major milestone in modern Mongolian history. The Mongolian
People's Revolutionary Party renamed itself the Mongolian People's Party in
Reference : www.wikipedia.org/mongolia
BBC TIMELINE OF MONGOLIAN HISTORY
1206-63 - Following unification of the Mongol tribes, Genghis Khan
launches a campaign of conquest. His sons and grandsons create
the world's biggest land empire.
1267-1368 - Weakened by disunity, the empire implodes. Ming
troops oust the Mongols from Dadu - present-day Beijing.
1380 - The Golden Horde is defeated by the Russian Prince
Dmitriy Donskoy. Ming troops destroy the Mongol capital,
1636 - The Manchu (Qing) empire conquers the southern Mongols,
creating Inner Mongolia.
1691 - The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols,
creating Outer Mongolia.
1727 - The Treaty of Kyakhta fixes the western border between the
Russian and Manchu empires, confirming Qing dominion over
Mongolia and Tuva.
First Soviet satellite state
1911 - The Qing dynasty falls and Outer Mongolia declares its
independence. Russia and the Republic of China recognise its
1919 - The Chinese army occupies Outer Mongolia.
1920 - Mongolian revolutionaries found the Mongolian People's
Party and open contact with Bolsheviks in Siberia.
Continue reading the main story
Ganden monastery survived 1930s Stalinist purges
2003: Mongolia's return to religion
1921 - With Red Army support, Mongolian revolutionaries drive out
Chinese and Tsarist forces and install the Mongolian "people's
1924 - The People's Party chooses Lenin's "road to socialism
bypassing capitalism" and renames itself the Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party (MPRP). The Mongolian People's Republic is
1928-32 - "Rightists" who want private enterprise are ousted.
"Leftists" who want communes are ousted. A "counter-
revolutionary uprising" against the confiscation of monastery
property is suppressed.
1937 - Mongolian Prime Minister Genden is arrested in the USSR
and shot for spying for Japan. The Minister of War Marshal Demid
is poisoned aboard a Trans-Siberian train. Monasteries are
destroyed and lamas murdered.
1939 - Mongolian and Soviet troops commanded by General
Zhukov defeat an invasion by Japanese and Manchukuo forces in
the Battle of Halhyn Gol (Nomonhan).
Continue reading the main story
Capital: Ulan Bator
Founded in the 17th century
Ulan Bator translates as 'Red Hero'
City is situated on the banks of the Tuul river
1939 - "Mongolia's Stalin", interior minister and new Minister of
War Choybalsan, is appointed prime minister. Ex-PM Amar is tried
in the USSR and shot for spying for Japan.
1945-46 - Yalta conference agrees to preserve the status quo -
Soviet control - in Mongolia. Mongolians vote for independence in
a UN plebiscite. Mongolia is recognised by the Republic of China.
1949-55 - Relations established with the People's Republic of
China. Railway built across Mongolia linking Russia and China.
1952 - Choybalsan dies, and is replaced as prime minister by
Tsedenbal, the MPRP general secretary since 1940.
1961-63 - UN Security Council approves Mongolia's UN
membership. Diplomatic relations established with the UK.
Soviet buffer against China
1966 - Soviet Communist Party General-Secretary Brezhnev signs
a friendship treaty in Ulan Bator allowing secret stationing of Soviet
troops in Mongolia.
1973-81 - Mongolia accuses China of planning annexation,
protests against Chinese leaders' call for withdrawal of Soviet
troops, accuses China of "aggressive intentions" and expels some
1984 - "Mongolia's Brezhnev", party General-Secretary Tsedenbal,
head of state since 1974, is forced out of office by the MPRP
1986 - Gorbachev's Vladivostok speech opens the way to detente
with China and the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Mongolia.
1990 - Street demonstrations force resignation of the MPRP
Politburo. Political parties are legalised. Elections to the Great
Hural (parliament) are won by the MPRP, but 19 of the 50 seats in
a new standing legislature go to non-communists.
1992 - Mongolia's new constitution gives first place to human
rights and freedoms. In the first democratic elections the MPRP
wins 71 of the 76 seats in the new single-chamber Great Hural.
1993 - The first direct presidential elections are won by Ochirbat,
nominated by the National and Social Democrats.
Continue reading the main story
Ex-president Bagabandi promised to tackle corruption
Elected 1997, re-elected in 2001
A Buddhist, educated in former Soviet Union
Mongolia's ex-communists re-elected
2001- On the campaign trail with Bagabandi
1996 - The National and Social Democrats win 50 seats in the
Great Hural elections, but the MPRP can deny a quorum,
hindering passage of legislation.
1997 - MPRP candidate Bagabandi wins presidential election.
2000 - After the democrats form three new governments in two
years the MPRP wins 72 seats in the Great Hural elections. The
National and Social Democrats and three other parties form a new
2001 February - UN launches appeal for $8.7m (£6m) to support
herders suffering in worst winter conditions in more than 50 years.
2001 May - President Bagabandi re-elected.
2001 October - IMF approves nearly $40 million in low-interest
loans over next three years to help tackle poverty and boost
2002 November - Dalai Lama visits. China denounces trip and
warns Mongolian leaders not to meet the Tibetan spiritual leader.
2003 July - It is announced that 200 soldiers will be sent to Iraq to
contribute to peacekeeping.
2004 January - Russia writes off all but $300 million of Mongolia's
2004 June-August - Parliamentary elections, in which the
opposition performs strongly, result in political deadlock over
contested results. Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj is eventually appointed as
prime minister following power-sharing deal.
2005 March-April - Protesters in the capital demand the
government's resignation and an end to poverty and official
2005 May - MPRP candidate Nambaryn Enkhbayar wins
2005 November - President George W Bush becomes the first
serving US leader to visit Mongolia.
2006 January - Coalition government headed by Tsakhiagiin
Elbegdorj falls after the MPRP pulls out, blaming the leadership for
slow economic growth. Parliament chooses MPRP's Miyeegombo
Enkhbold as the new prime minister.
2007 November - Prime Minister Miyeegombo Enkhbold resigns.
He is replaced by MPRP leader Sanjagiin Bayar.
State of emergency
2008 July - President Enkhbayar declares a state of emergency to
quell riots in the capital which left five dead and hundreds injured.
Violence erupted after the opposition accused the governing party
of rigging elections.
2009 May - Former Prime Minister and candidate of the opposition
Democratic Party, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, wins presidential
election, defeating incumbent Nambaryn Enkhbayar by a narrow
margin. Governing MPRP says it accepts the result.
2009 October - Prime Minister Sanjagiin Bayar of the MPRP
resigns for health reasons. Foreign Minister Sukhbaataryn Batbold
2010 February - Extreme cold kills so much livestock that the
United Nations launches a programme to pay herders to clean and
collect carcasses. This will help maintain living standards while
disposing of possible sources of disease.
2010 April - PM Sukhbaataryn Batbold takes over as head of
governing MPRP from former PM Sanjagiin Bayar.
2010 September - Mongolian spy chief Bat Khurts is arrested on
landing in Britain, sparking a diplomatic row. A court later rules that
he can be extradited to Germany on kidnapping charges.
2010 November - Controversy as Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party reverts to Communist-era name of Mongolian
People's Party. Ex-President Nambaryn Enkhbayar sets up small
breakaway Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party.
Gobi desert development
2011 July - Mongolia selects the US Peabody Energy, China's
Shenhua and a Russian-Mongolian consortium as partners to
develop the highly sought-after Tavan Tolgoi coal deposit in the
Spy chief Bat Khurts loses appeal in Britain against extradition to
Germany on kidnapping charges.
2011 October - Mongolia and Rio Tinto-owned Ivanhoe Mines
reach agreement on stakeholding in the massive Oyu Tolgoi
copper mine. Mongolia settles for a 34% share, as previously
agreed, dropping demands for parity.
2011 November - Germany releases Mongolian spy chief Bat
Khurts ahead of Chancellor Angela Merkel's visit to Mongolia.
2012 April - Mongolia puts Tavan Tolgoi coal mine deal on hold
while it decides whether to go it alone on developing the project. It
had earlier agreed to work with a group of US, Chinese and
2012 June - Parliamentary elections. Democratic Party wins most
seats and goes on to form a coalition with the Mongolian People's
2012 August - Former president Nambaryn Enkhbayar is
sentenced to four years in jail for corruption.
2012 December - Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
threatens to leave governing coalition in protest at its former leader
Enkhbayar's jail sentence.
2013 July - Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, from the Democratic Party, wins
a second term as president.
Reference : http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/5167718.stm