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ITE RP Presentation (Part 3 Of 3)


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PART 3 of 3: A highly detailed synopsis of the Recommended Practice in three parts intended as a training tool.

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ITE RP Presentation (Part 3 Of 3)

  1. 1. Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach An ITE Recommended Practice Part 3 of 3
  2. 2. <ul><li>This presentation… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a synopsis of the Recommended Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended as an introduction to Context Sensitive Solutions for design professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by the Federal Highway Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered as public domain for use by professionals in the transportation and urban planning/design fields, as well as elected officials and the public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use as desired but please retain credits for ITE, the RP’s authors, and photos and refrain from significantly altering content </li></ul><ul><li>Brian Bochner, PE </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Transportation Institute </li></ul>Preamble Principal Authors James Daisa, PE Ove Arup & Partners, Ltd. San Francisco
  3. 3. Preamble <ul><li>This presentation is divided into three separate Powerpoint files each containing multiple segments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ITE RP Presentation (Part 1 of 3).ppt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segment 1: Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segment 2: CSS in Transportation Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITE RP Presentation (Part 2 of 3).ppt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segment 3: CSS Design Framework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segment 4: Design Controls and Thoroughfare Design Process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITE RP Presentation (Part 3 of 3).ppt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segment 5: Streetside Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segment 6: Traveled Way Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segment 7: Intersection Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional Powerpoint presentations are available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 15-20 minute overview of the RP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An appendix of CSS background information and many annotated photographic examples of thoroughfare types in varying contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The above presentations are available at no cost from ITE at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. STREETSIDE DESIGN Segment 5
  5. 5. Thoroughfare Components
  6. 6. The Streetside <ul><li>Right of way between curb and property line </li></ul><ul><li>Streetside zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edge Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furnishings Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughway Zone (ADA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontage Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function and dimensions vary by context zone and adjacent land use </li></ul>
  7. 7. Streetside Zones Example Frontage Zone Throughway Zone Furnishing Zone Edge Zone
  8. 8. <ul><li>Distinct streetside zones </li></ul><ul><li>Zone width and function </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian throughway </li></ul><ul><li>ADA requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Placement of paraphernalia </li></ul><ul><li>Public art </li></ul><ul><li>Buffering traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Driveway and alley crossings </li></ul><ul><li>Street furniture and amenities </li></ul><ul><li>Public space, plazas </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities and vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Landscaping/street trees </li></ul>Potential Elements of Streetside Design
  9. 9. Example Streetside Design Parameters
  10. 10. Streetside Examples Context Sensitive Not Context Sensitive Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup Example: Retail Main Street
  11. 11. Streetside Examples Context Sensitive Not Context Sensitive Example: Urban Core Business District Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  12. 12. Streetside Examples Context Sensitive Not Context Sensitive Example: Urban Residential Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  13. 13. Streetside Examples Context Sensitive Not Context Sensitive Example: Historic District Photo: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
  14. 14. <ul><li>Interface with traveled way </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle overhang and clearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Door opening area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheelchair access at transit stops </li></ul></ul>Edge Zone
  15. 15. <ul><li>Buffers pedestrians from traveled way </li></ul><ul><li>Space for streetside appurterances </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodates street furniture and utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transit stops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public spaces (seating) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business space (cafes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscaping </li></ul></ul>Furnishings Zone
  16. 16. Furnishing Zone in Residential Context
  17. 17. Furnishing Zone in Commercial Context
  18. 18. <ul><li>Throughway zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear area for pedestrian travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADAAG requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontage zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area adjacent to property line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shy” distance from buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business space (cafes, signs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscaping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building access </li></ul></ul>Throughway and Frontage Zones Photo: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
  19. 19. Streetside and Vehicle Speed <ul><li>Vehicle speed affects actual and perceived safety </li></ul><ul><li>Distance between pedestrians and vehicles most important </li></ul><ul><li>Improves actual safety </li></ul><ul><li>Improves sense of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer width on arterial / collector: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-6 feet (AASHTO) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use multiple techniques in constrained right of way </li></ul>
  20. 20. Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach Photo: Dan Burden, Example: Use of fencing to buffer pedestrians from traffic
  21. 21. Curb Extensions Example: Mitigating narrow buffer between pedestrians and traffic Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  22. 22. Clear Zones on Urban Thoroughfares <ul><li>Clear zone = edge clear of fixed objects </li></ul><ul><li>Less consequence than rural or highway context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower speeds, traffic stops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parked vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not practical in urban areas </li></ul>Clear Zone (Typ. 20 feet)
  23. 23. TRAVELED WAY DESIGN Segment 6
  24. 24. Thoroughfare Components
  25. 25. <ul><li>Central portion of thoroughfare between curbs </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for movement of all vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Interface with streetside via on-street parking </li></ul>The Urban Traveled Way
  26. 26. <ul><li>Cross-section </li></ul><ul><li>Access management </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency vehicle needs </li></ul><ul><li>Transition principles </li></ul><ul><li>Lane width </li></ul><ul><li>Medians </li></ul><ul><li>Bicycle lanes </li></ul><ul><li>On-street parking </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric transition </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-block crossings </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian refuge islands </li></ul><ul><li>Transit design </li></ul><ul><li>Bus stops in the traveled way </li></ul><ul><li>Stormwater management </li></ul><ul><li>Snow removal </li></ul>Potential Elements of Traveled Way Design Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  27. 27. <ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35 mph thoroughfares: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arterial lane widths: 10-12 feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collector lane widths: 10-11 feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 30 mph: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arterial and collector lane widths: 10-11 feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design vehicle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right of way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Width of adjacent parking and bicycle lanes </li></ul></ul></ul>Lane Width Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  28. 28. <ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul>Medians Thoroughfare Type Minimum Width Recommended Width Median for access control All Thoroughfare Types 4 ft. 6 ft. Median for pedestrian refuge All Thoroughfare Types 6 ft. 8 ft. Median for street trees and lighting All Thoroughfare Types 6 ft. 10 ft. Median for single left-turn lane Collector Avenues and Streets 10 ft. 14 ft. Arterial Boulevards and Avenues 12 ft. 16-18 ft. Median for dual left turn lanes Arterial Boulevards and Avenues 20 ft. 22 ft. Median for transitway Dedicated rail or transit lanes 22 ft. 22-24 ft. Added median width for platforms 10 ft. for each side platform 30 ft. for center platform
  29. 29. <ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Min. median width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 feet for up to 4” caliper trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 feet for larger trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a crash tested barrier for large trees in narrow medians or when speed > 40 mph </li></ul></ul>Trees in Medians Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  30. 30. <ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined with on-street parking = 13 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without on-street parking = 6 feet </li></ul></ul>Bicycle Lanes Photos: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  31. 31. Photo: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. Example: Marked bike lane on a street in an General Urban context
  32. 32. <ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoroughfare types in all contexts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial: 8 feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residential: 7 feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angled parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-volume, low-speed avenues and streets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial main streets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse angled parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider on bicycle routes </li></ul></ul></ul>On-Street Parking Photo: Dan Burden, Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  33. 33. <ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate so crossings are 200-300 feet apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant pedestrian demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria for unsignalized crossing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12,000 ADT or less </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15,000 ADT with median refuge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed less than 40 mph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate sight distance </li></ul></ul></ul>Mid-Block Crossings Illustration: Claire Vlach, Bottomley Design & Planning
  34. 34. Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  35. 35. Thoroughfare Speed Management <ul><li>Controlling speed using enforcement, design, and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Local street “traffic calming” measures not appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Passive measures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide motorist feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorist perceive need to lower speed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active measures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical devices force slower speed </li></ul></ul>Photo: Dan Burden,
  36. 36. Thoroughfare Speed Management <ul><li>Multidisciplinary decision </li></ul><ul><li>Requires input from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transit service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business and community stakeholders </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Planning for Transit on Thoroughfares Type of Transit Local Bus Rapid Bus Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Trolleys / Streetcar Light Rail Transit (LRT)
  38. 38. Transit Facilities on Thoroughfares <ul><li>Mixed-flow travel lanes </li></ul><ul><li>High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes in median or outside lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible or contraflow transit lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated transitway in inside or outside travel lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Separated transitway in thoroughfare right of way </li></ul><ul><li>Transit-only streets, busways, or transit malls </li></ul>
  39. 39. Considerations When Planning for Transit Thoroughfare Component Factors to be Considered Streetside Streetside width at stops or stations Space for passenger requirements such as shelters, seating, trees, lighting, etc. Accessibility requirements (lift pads) Traveled Way Available total right-of-way to accommodate running ways, stops and stations Lane width to accommodate transit vehicle in mixed flow lanes Type of running way and separation Median width to accommodate running ways and stations Pedestrian access to median stations Parking restrictions near stops and stations Bike/bus conflicts where buses stop in bike lane Additional width for transit facilities versus pedestrian crossing distance Horizontal and vertical clearances for transit Transit operations on one-way streets, location of stops, turns Overhead clearance for catenary power supply or trolley wires and space to mount poles
  40. 40. Photo: Texas Transportation Institute Example: Local bus route in a High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane on an Urban Core avenue
  41. 41. Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup Example: Trolley in mixed flow lane with raised island stop
  42. 42. Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup Example: Shared bus and bike lane
  43. 43. Photo: James M. Daisa, PE, Arup Example: Light rail transit in separate right-of-way within an Urban Center boulevard
  44. 44. Bus Stops in the Traveled Way <ul><li>Some considerations in stop placement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing—every stop is a potential crossing point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffering passengers from traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space for amenities and passengers on streetside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility for passenger and police surveillance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street and stop illumination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access for people with disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfers to other routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate curb for expected buses </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Example: Compact bus stop on Urban Center street with “lean bar” around street tree Photo: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
  46. 46. Photo: Dan Burden, Example: Bus stop Suburban boulevard
  47. 48. INTERSECTION DESIGN Segment 7
  48. 49. <ul><li>Intersection sight distance </li></ul><ul><li>Managing modal conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>General intersection layout </li></ul><ul><li>Curb return radii </li></ul><ul><li>Channelized right turns </li></ul><ul><li>Modern roundabouts </li></ul><ul><li>Crosswalks </li></ul><ul><li>Curb extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Bicycle lane treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Bus stops at intersection s </li></ul>Intersection Design Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup
  49. 50. <ul><li>Minimize conflicts between modes </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize pedestrian exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Provide crosswalks on all approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize curb radii consistent with design/control vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure good visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Balance vehicle LOS with pedestrian convenience and safety </li></ul>Urban Intersection Design Principles
  50. 51. <ul><li>Through and turning lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Intersection sight distance </li></ul><ul><li>Medians </li></ul><ul><li>Curb return radii </li></ul><ul><li>Design vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Channelized right turns </li></ul><ul><li>Modern roundabouts </li></ul><ul><li>Crosswalks and refuges </li></ul><ul><li>Curb extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Bicycle lane treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Bus stops </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic signals </li></ul>Urban Intersection Design Elements
  51. 52. Designing Intersections for All Users <ul><li>Understand crash types and their causes </li></ul><ul><li>Review design conventions and policies that impact safety </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze pedestrian/bike safety problems </li></ul><ul><li>Use best practices resources to assess countermeasures for each problem </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate best solution into design </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>Median refuge island </li></ul><ul><li>High visibility crosswalk markings </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced warning signs </li></ul><ul><li>Street and crosswalk illumination </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced yield lines </li></ul><ul><li>Curb extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian activated flashing beacons </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently applied within pedestrian-oriented corridors </li></ul>Features at Uncontrolled Intersections Illustration: BMS Design Group
  53. 54. Median refuge island High visibility crosswalk markings Advanced warning signs Street and crosswalk illumination
  54. 55. <ul><li>Reduce conflicts between pedestrians and turning vehicles achieved with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrian lead phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scramble phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No right turns on red when pedestrians are present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve pedestrian awareness with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrian countdown timers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Look Before Crossing” markings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve safety at large radius or channelized right turn lanes with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low speed right turn channelization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrian refuge island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised pedestrian crossing/speed table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal control of right turn traffic </li></ul></ul>Example Pedestrian Treatments
  55. 56. Example Bicycle Treatments <ul><li>Bicycle lanes striped up to crosswalk </li></ul><ul><li>Bicycle detectors or bicyclist-accessible actuation buttons </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate clearance interval </li></ul><ul><li>Colored paving in bicycle/vehicle lanes in high-conflict areas </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bike Boxes” </li></ul>
  56. 57. Intersection Design Considerations Source: Community Design +Architecture and Urban Advantage Typical Auto-oriented Intersection Features
  57. 58. Intersection Design Considerations El Camino Real @ Los Robles – PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS Source: City of Palo Alto CD+A, FPA, and Urban Advantage Source: Community Design +Architecture and Urban Advantage Features that Accommodate All Users
  58. 59. <ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design vehicle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effective radii </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Width of receiving lanes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum radius in C-5 and C-6 zones = 5 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use 5-15 feet radius when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High pedestrian volumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low turning volumes and speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bike/parking lanes create higher effective radii </li></ul></ul></ul>Curb Return Radii <ul><li>Curb radii may be larger where: </li></ul><ul><li>Encroachment into opposing lane is unacceptable </li></ul><ul><li>There are curb extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving thoroughfare is less than 12 feet wide </li></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>Improves visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces crossing width </li></ul><ul><li>Only on streets with parking </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend curb line 1 ft. less than parking width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curb return radius for control vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use with bus stops to increase waiting area </li></ul></ul>Curb Extensions
  60. 61. Curb Extensions
  61. 62. <ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally discouraged in walkable environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signalized intersections with high right turns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low pedestrian volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where pedestrian volumes high – eliminate or install pedestrian signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-angle turn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illumination </li></ul></ul>Channelized Right Turns
  62. 63. Photo: Dan Burden, Example: A low-speed channelized right turn lane with an uncontrolled crossing. Note the damaged mountable pavers likely caused by trucks.
  63. 64. Example: A conventional channelized right turn lane with an uncontrolled crossing. The at-grade channel through the refuge island conforms to ADA. Photo: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
  64. 65. Pedestrian Refuge Islands <ul><li>Recommended practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refuge islands are used in medians and on channelized right turns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow pedestrians to cross wide or busy streets in multiple stages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider at intersections and midblock crossings when one or more of the following conditions apply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsignalized location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-volume thoroughfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing is 60 feet or longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four or more lanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right of way for a minimum 6 foot wide raised island </li></ul></ul>
  65. 66. Photo: James M. Daisa, P.E., Arup Example: Median refuge island with “Z” configuration on a General Urban boulevard A “Z” configuration directs pedestrians crossing the median to look toward oncoming traffic This tree must be pruned regularly to maintain proper sight distance and visibility between drivers and pedestrians
  66. 67. Photo: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. Example: Multiway boulevard with refuge islands between the center thoroughfare and access lanes.
  67. 68. Modern Roundabouts Photo: Dan Burden,
  68. 69. Photo: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
  69. 70. Photo: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. Photo: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.