Twelve lessons to Develop and Sustain Online Knowledge Communities


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O desenvolvimento de comunidades de prática vem se tornando uma das ferramentas mais importantes na Gestão do Conhecimento. Assim, artigo apresenta e discute doze lições práticas para criar e manter comunidades de prática virtuais em empresas.

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Twelve lessons to Develop and Sustain Online Knowledge Communities

  1. 1. # $ % O desenvolvimento de comunidades de prática vem se tornando uma das ferramentas mais importantes na Gestão do Conhecimento, e passaram a ser uma realidade dentro de organizações. Assim, o artigo apresenta e discute doze lições práticas para criar e manter comunidades de prática virtuais em empresas. ! " ABSTRACT an opportunity to develop in-depth case studies using a structured qualitative and The development of online communities is quantitative inquiry guide. The research was rapidly becoming one of the important tools in gathered through a combination of face-to- Knowledge Management. Online communities face meetings and telephone interviews. The have been emerging steadily and rapidly since paper also presents a brief literature review. the early nineties. Initially these online The key conclusion is that technology only communities were being developed outside plays a secondary role in developing and the corporate world. More recently, however, sustaining online communities. Much more they have also become an organization reality. important are human-centric issues related to The concept of Communities of Practice has leadership, focus, motivation, identity and fuelled its growth and made it a strategic rewards. concern in a growing number of forward- looking firms. This paper presents practical KEYWORDS Knowledge Management, lessons for organizations that aim to develop Online Communities, Global Companies, E- and sustain online communities in the context learning, Case Studies, Reputation of knowledge program initiatives of a few leading organizations. These lessons (and the 1. INTRODUCTION specific examples) are based on the actual experiences of eleven large organizations that We believe it is difficult for large, global were part of a large research that included organizations to remain competitive in interviews in Canada, U.S.A., Brazil, United industries that demand rapid cycles of Kingdom and Germany. The following knowledge creation, diffusion and usage, organizations were part of the study: ADC without highly advanced digital collaboration Telecommunications, Bain & Company; Bank tools. With integrated web-based collaboration of Montreal; Brazil’s Finance Ministry IT tools, the sophistication, user-friendliness and Agency (SERPRO); Context Integration; Eli mobility capabilities of online communities Lilly; Hill & Knowlton; Nortel, Siemens, have been taken to a much higher level. This Texaco; and Xerox. Each company provided is not going unnoticed by leading knowledge- ©TerraForum Consultores 1
  2. 2. focused organizations. Various KM initiatives extensive literature research and researcher’s are strongly leveraging Online Communities of personal experiences as practitioners of Pratice (CoPs). In this paper, we will present knowledge management. We chose a detailed how some leading organizations are applying case study analysis based on a mix of close- collaboration tools into effective use to ended and open-ended questions. This leverage their “knowledge” know-how. It choice, we believe, was necessary because of presents the lessons learned related to the the very early stage of this topic. Very few development and support of online organizations have fully embraced and/or are communities in large organizations that have providing dedicated resources (people, money strong KM programs. Each lesson is illustrated and infrastructure) to support the development with many practical examples extracted from of strategic online communities. Thus, this the case studies. Eleven organizations were research was very exploratory in nature and & % " % " ' % % ( " (% ) selected to participate in the study because of the choice of the title for this paper intends not their advanced stage in their knowledge to convey the idea of generalization, but that management implementations and their strong there are many sequential steps that should web-based supporting capabilities. In almost be well-planned ahead when starting an online all cases, these were large, global companies knowledge community. In every case, we that had a strong need to share knowledge conducted a number of in-depth interviews across offices situated in different corners of with senior executives in charge of KM and the world. The following organizations corporate portal initiatives. We did not, provided us with the opportunity to understand however, limit the interview process to KM their KM/online communities initiatives and leaders. More often than not we also develop in-depth case studies: ADC interviewed project managers, users Telecommunications, Bain & Company; Bank (employees) and community leaders. of Montreal; Brazil’s Finance Ministry IT Generally, we interviewed three to eight Agency (SERPRO); Context Integration; Eli persons per organization. More often than not, Lilly; Hill & Knowlton; Nortel, Siemens, we were also introduced to live demos of the Texaco; and Xerox. The interviews were web solutions and/or were provided with conducted with employees located in Brazil, screenshots to support interviews over the Canada, Germany, United Kingdom and the phone. A number of companies also shared United States. their internal documentation related to the KM efforts. After an initial round of interviews, as 2. METHODOLOGY researchers, we would then prepare a first draft of our conclusions and submit it to the The paper is based on in-depth case studies organization for further review, discussion and using a structured qualitative and quantitative refinement. This allowed the researchers inquiry guide. The research was gathered involved not only to correct any through a combination of face-to-face misinterpretations, but also to take the meetings and telephone interviews. The interviews to a deeper level of communication research interview guide was based on as interviewees were prompted to reflect about what they had learned (Many ©TerraForum Consultores 2
  3. 3. interviewees have expressed their cross the boundaries of organizations, appreciation for the opportunity to develop the countries, age groups and profit and non-profit cases). They think that this exercise led them organizations. The nineties saw the growth in to pause for a moment and, through a collaborative work supported by LAN (local dialogue with us as researchers, to rethink area networks) and WAN (wide area their overall goals, achievements and lessons networks) in many large organizations (see learned. The focus of our research was not on box below with some of the key lessons from the issues of IT implementation. The research on Computer Supported Cooperative understanding of the IT infrastructure only Work). Since the web, however, online provided us with the necessary context to collaboration has reached a much wider scale analyze the KM and online communities within and outside the business world. initiatives that were being supported. Indeed, Collaboration and community building as we found out through our interviews, the applications are, indeed, becoming a key most important factors of success were component of many knowledge management related not to the choice of technology, but initiatives. They can increase the ability of with the managerial practices and processes employees, especially from different locations, aimed at increasing knowledge flows in the to develop stronger bonds and a sense of organization. The key strength of this community. methodology was the unveiling of detailed In the face of the tremendous challenge of anecdotes, stories and tips that are just being fostering knowledge sharing within and across tested in the field by practitioners. This is companies we also need to highlight the reflected on how each proposed “rule” for concept that precedes the web and online developing and sustaining online knowledge communities, but that is also greatly benefiting communities is illustrated by very specific from these technologies: Communities of examples from the cases studied. This Practice (CoP)s which was originally coined richness of detail is of paramount importance by the organizational theorist, Etienne for other researchers that may engage in Wenger. Communities of Practice (CoPs) similar research projects. In the next section, consist of people who are informally, as well we provide a brief literature review and then in as contextually, bound by a shared interest in item 4 we discuss what the key learning learning and applying a common practice. insights were from our eleven research cases. CoP members may be part of the same department, belong to different areas of a 3. BRIEF LITERATURE REVIEW company or even to different companies and institutions. Members may create semi-open Experiences with online communities, such as “clubs,” where membership is based on AOL, Compuserv, WELL and Listserv, pre- relations of high trust and on the contribution date the web. Some people, including that each person brings to the community or sociologist and Berkley University professor network (Wenger & Snyder, 2000). The term Manuel Castell (2001), have suggested, “the CoP refers to the ways in which people origins of on-line communities were very close naturally work together and/or associate with to the counter-cultural movements and others. It acknowledges and celebrates the alternative ways of life emerging in the power of informal communities of peers, their aftermath of the 1960s”. Since the web, creativity and resourcefulness in solving however, they have become a mainstream problems, and their ability to invent better, fixture for focused files, information and easier ways to meet their commitments. What knowledge exchanges. These communities holds CoP members together is a common sense of purpose, the needs of individuals to ©TerraForum Consultores 3
  4. 4. connect with others that share similar It has also been argued that knowledge experiences or learning goals and, ultimately, shared within a particular CoP may not get each member’s real need to know what the shared beyond the members of the CoP. other members know" (Brown & Duguid, Dorothy Leonard Barton (1995) has 1991). Some organizations that are researched the impact of communities on knowledge intensive, such as consulting knowledge sharing and has shown how companies (like McKinsey, Bain and isolated communities tend to get stuck in ruts, Accenture, for example), have been fostering with core competencies turning into core the development of global CoPs for a long rigidities. Her research found that external time. Most organizations, however, have yet to cultural stimuli are needed to help propel a pay close attention to CoPs. This is starting to CoP’s or an organization’s corporate culture change. Recently, a number of leading forward. Without these external stimuli, it is organizations (for example Xerox, World very easy for CoPs to be blinded by the Bank, IBM, HP, Siemens, Shell, Texaco, etc.) boundaries of their own limited view. By have started to recognize the contribution that linking diverse communities, with different such networks can make towards the creation belief systems and evaluative practices, in a and diffusion of knowledge and have started cohesive meld, organizations can challenge to formally support CoPs. According to the the narrow belief systems of each individual research firm Gartner (2001), by 2004, community and ensure that knowledge is formally supported CoPs will be prevalent in moved around. Thus, the ability to organize, more than 50 percent of Fortune 500 capture, and disseminate the knowledge of enterprises. This trend probably derives from particular CoPs throughout an organization is the conclusions of Wenger & Snyder (2000), at the core of successful KM efforts. about the many benefits of CoPs. According to Increasingly, a company’s ability to survive them, communities add value to organizations and outperform others requires the continuous in many ways. They: linking of distinct CoPs and the synthesis of - Help drive strategy; collective and organizational knowledge. By - Start new lines of business; supporting or institutionalizing strategically - Solve problems quickly; relevant CoPs, firms can codify chunks of the - Transfer best practices; knowledge carried by employees and, more - Develop professional skills; importantly, promote focused organizational - Help companies to recruit and retain talent. learning and innovation. It is a well-known fact Based on our own research and case studies, that meaningful connections take individuals we would add the following possible types of to levels of creativity well beyond what they contributions: would reach in isolation. Learning, as John - Win new businesses more quickly; Seely Brown and Paul Duguid have - Better serve existing clients; emphasized, is a social act (Brown & Duguid, - Develop stronger relationships with 2000). clients; - Facilitate integration of acquired 4. RESEARCH RESULTS companies and in post-merger efforts; - Reduce cross-functional and cross- The eleven cases analyzed are quite different: location cultural barriers; in the scope and stage of their KM initiatives - Improve organizations’ social capital; - and the development of online knowledge- Reduce costs; sharing communities, the size of the - And, play a significant role in merger organizations involved (from large and acquisition activities multinationals to strong local players), and the ©TerraForum Consultores 4
  5. 5. particular industry represented. The major strategy for their communities. Easy to results and the various lessons (from multiple remember names with strong personalities perspectives) for each detailed case study has were, therefore, often introduced (“IAN, which been published in a book format in October of stands for Intellectual Asset Network” - 2002 by Butterworth Heinemann: “Realizing Context Integration; “GXC” or Global the promise of corporate portals: leveraging Exchange Network – Bain & Company; knowledge for business success” (Terra & “ELVIS” – Eli Lilly; Sharenet – Siemens; Gordon, 2002). Despite the differences in the PeopleNet-Texaco; Eureka-Xerox). cases, we strongly believe that a number of commonalities have emerged. Thus, this 3.2 Online communities need a strong paper provides a summary of “lessons communications plan learned” that, we believe, apply to most organizations interested in developing online We have learned that launching online communities. Indeed, we believe that there communities require important behaviour are twelve lessons that can be applied to the changes and dedicated champions. In various development and support of most successful successful cases, such as Texaco, ADC, online communities. They are the following: Siemens and Serpro, we saw a concerted effort of the KM teams and other champions 3.1 Establish a sense of identity for the from different areas. Indeed, our research community suggests that multidisciplinary teams are extremely important for successful KM A sense of identity can be created through the implementation. In the cases analyzed, we establishment of a clear purpose and specific saw multidisciplinary teams working together goals and objectives for the community, as not only to develop the infrastructure, but also well as through the development and fostering to publicize, train and motivate people of a sense of history for the community. Let throughout the organizations. They worked new members know how the community got with employees in general, but also with a started, who was involved in the beginning, number of early-adopters and or communities etc. It is also important to create a strong that helped disseminate concepts and remind messaging and branding effort (with adequate other employees. In some of the most visual cues). This plays a critical role in successful cases, the rollout and key reminding members of their affiliation and improvements (new functionality or added promoting the goals and values of the content areas) were also often preceded by community. In many cases, such as Hill & significant internal communication, including Knowlton, Bain & Company, Siemens and posters, newsletters, communication booths, Texaco, there is a system and personnel in local training sessions and gatherings (with place, to capture and publicize anecdotes of the presence of senior management) and e- good knowledge-sharing within the mail communications. organization. Through regular e-mails and postings in the online communities these 3.3 Develop the rules of engagement for success stories do not go unnoticed. There is the community a strong belief in these organizations that these actions help foster a sense of identity, Moving to an online community is like moving expected behaviour and increase to any new environment: people need to learn participation. We also noticed that many the rules of participation or the “netiquette” of organizations developed a good branding the community (e.g., when and how to ©TerraForum Consultores 5
  6. 6. contribute). The leader(s) of the community added, for instance, chats, instant messaging should curb any activity that is against these and discussions forums in their knowledge pre-determined principles or that does not portal. However, after careful analysis of how belong within the context of the community work is conducted and how knowledge is (Context Integration, for instance, has a shared and created, the KM team decided that prominent section in its knowledge portal it was not the right time to implement these about appropriate behavior called “Social tools. Ideally, users should use a minimal Contract”. Siemens has something very number of “clicks” and strolling to find the similar that it calls “Quality Guidelines” and information they need. Hyper-linking should Texaco called it PeopleNet’s Statement which provide different paths for users to find the laid out very clearly the expected behavior same information. The graphical design and from users of the system). Indeed, it is clear layout should be clean (not “crowded”) and that many organizations will need to extend convey the overall tone of the company’s existing traditional “team dynamics training” to brand-positioning or support the identity of the include “rules for online collaboration”. It is a specific community towards whom it is geared. big mistake to think that people will naturally Regardless of the application or component know how to behave online. being implemented, it’s highly advisable to get input from users and content- creators very 3.4 Common language and simplicity of early on. The development of ShareNet at usage is essential for success Siements provides the best example of the above affirmations. In order to design a Investing design time on simplification for system that would work, ShareNet was valuable knowledge sources and then to work developed in a very collaborative setting. A with end users to understand further their steering team was formed, with close to forty unique personal or community requirements is sales representatives and marketing a more valuable approach to execution than professionals from many different countries posting a wealth of content that no one uses. and types of customers. This team started &* ' +% , % % ' ' - + %% ' ,' ' - + ) It is important to understand how employees with what some managers at Siemens conduct their work and when and how they consider to be the foundation of KM: “Know look for other sources of knowledge. It is your processes well”. In this case, the advisable to do a careful “audit” of each selected team developed detailed maps of the business process and knowledge domain sales processes (defined as core process) before doing any development work. The end and linked each step and/or aspect of the result of the audit process becomes a set of process to specific “buckets” of knowledge. taxonomies and structures that closely fit an These buckets of knowledge were derived organization’s business and users’ needs. It after extensive interviews with sales and also means less time and money spent on marketing professionals. These professional costly reworks. One of the important lessons were asked directed questions such as: at Bain was not to implement web applications - “How does your process work?” just because it was easy to do so. For - “What are the important sources of instance, the company could have easily knowledge that you need to do your job?” ©TerraForum Consultores 6
  7. 7. - “Why have you been successful in your and policies focused on keeping only high projects?” quality references content. A few good After these interviews, the ShareNet central strategies that we uncover were the following: team was able to cluster the relevant sources A validation process to let employees upload of knowledge into specific “Knowledge content to a wide audience was basically in Objects” such as “Technical Solutions”, place in all cases; Detailed and easy to use “Functional Solutions”, “Customer feedback mechanisms improves the quality of Knowledge”, etc. Once agreement was existing documents and helps to quickly reached, the ShareNet team started to exclude references that have low-value develop a series of prototypes while (particularly important at Bain, Siemens and periodically asking future users how they Xerox). By doing this, users add value to the would like the information and knowledge original documents. Sometimes they disagree buckets to be presented. with the conclusions or tips of existing documents, sometimes they add new context 3.5 Lead by example and make sure critical or simply confirm its usefulness. Anyhow, after mass is developed rapidly a number of iterations, the original documents usually have their intellectual capital enhanced Frequent participation by community leaders by the contributions of others; Finally, in the activities of the community (especially if moderators or knowledge brokers can play an the leader is also a domain expert) will important role by constantly monitoring usage certainly prompt higher levels of participation and interviewing users to find ways to improve by members of the community at large. Bain & the quality of content. Some of the most Company’s successful implementation is advanced companies have realized that attributed, to a great extent, to the many hours perfect timing adds significant value to that its most senior partners have dedicated Knowledge. In order to be successful in highly not only to planning the project, but also to competitive environments, and also to better contributing with content themselves. The serve customers, employees need to be able company also focused initially in areas of to tap the organizational knowledge very content that were strategic and where a rapidly. In some cases, it might be a matter of relevant mass of expertise was available hours; in other circumstances, the requests within the firm. may be treated as routine learning. This might be a straightforward concept, but most 3.6 Quality of content is more important companies do not pay as much attention to that quantity of content how perfect timing improves the quality of content. Perfect timing is achieved through a If an online community is to focus on combination of personalized notification, quick knowledge flows, it is very important that content management process and ability of people trust the information that they receive; employees to direct their requests for help otherwise users quickly disregard the tool. according to different levels of priority (Context One of the remarkable things about the most Integration and Siemens case, in particular, successful online community implementations are good examples). is their stringent quality focus. In large organizations, in particular, any online 3.7 New members need special attention: collaborative tool can easily become a “dump” from invitation to introduction and quickly lose credibility if employees do not trust the information available in the system. In This involves alerting users of events, the cases analyzed a number of practices reminding them of the benefits of the ©TerraForum Consultores 7
  8. 8. community and its the rules of engagement, pre-select topics they are interested in). At and inviting those that are absent to contribute ADC, they provide “plug & use” capabilities if they feel their participation could elevate the that allow almost anyone to quickly set up level of discussions. It is particularly important communities with applications such as to greet, coach and get new members up to calendars, discussions forums, whiteboards, speed. In the online environment it is quite notification, etc. Finally at Eli Lilly a number of easy to have newcomers to come, check in a pre-web communities were carefully studied few times, and then never show up again. At and supported before launching the software Bank of Montreal (integrated with their training applications to support online communities. initiatives) SERPRO, Hill & Knowlton, After the launch, however, other communities Siemens, Bain & Company and Context could be freely created without management Integration senior management and senior direct support. management of the Knowledge Management team travelled extensively through their many 3.9 Participants need to develop an online different offices letting people know about the identity communities. At Hill & Knowlton, Bain and Context Integration every new employee goes Identity is key for fostering human to detailed training on how to use the KM connections. Most companies in our studies systems and participate in online supported some kind of online identity and communities. reputation development. Detailed, accurate, updated and meaningful profiles of users help 3.8 Allow both centralized and spark connections and create the required decentralized community creation level trust amongst participants. Firms are clearly documenting subject matter expertise, Organizations deploying online communities where they were, how to reach out to them, may take two complementary approaches to what knowledge they knew and what kind of foster community creation: (i) they can provide particular interests they have. A number of pre-defined community environments (with organizations also realized that people tend to targeted content, list of individuals, collaborate more with others if the collaboration tools, etc) that are carefully, relationships become somewhat more strategically and centrally planned or (ii) they personal. In some cases, it may even include can provide the tools that allow like-minded photos and personal information such as individuals to easily set-up their own hobbies (this is the case, for instance, at ADC, communities. ADC, Eli Lilly and Hill & Eli Lilly and Texaco.). Expertise maps, in Knowlton, for instance, adopted both many instances also included databases with strategies. They created a few core lists and descriptions of the competencies of communities that were strategic (based on individuals both within and/or outside the existing core competencies and/or target organization. industries), such as the “Health Community” in the case of Hill & Knowlton, and also 3.10 Recognize levels of participation and implemented solutions that allow communities develop a reputation system to be easily set-up. In the case of Hill & Knowlton, for instance, communities can be The recognition and identification of the created by linking emails and messages in different levels of contribution (both real-time and distributing them to folders quantitative and qualitative) of each individual according to users’ own interests (users have is of particular importance to knowledge the ability to direct their messages and also to ©TerraForum Consultores 8
  9. 9. exchange communities. Providing ways to at hand, they can direct their actions to the gauge individual contributions to an root causes of occasional problems and/or organization’ intellectual capital pool and to its diminishing participation. Close monitoring online knowledge flow is, therefore, being was something notes in many of the cases experimented in a number of cases. At (e.g. ADC, Bain & Company, Context Context Integration, some people are labeled Integration, Siemens, etc). At Context as “gurus”, at Bain & Company, documents Integration, for instance, IAN’s moderator that are highly rated by the community are tracks a number of items such as number of displayed more prominently in search results. postings, number of questions, most active Both Bain & Company and Hill & Knowlton categories, least active categories, most include a “best-seller” list of documents (and active employees and offices, etc. This the name of the authors) that have been most tracking systems is closely monitored, well accessed by others. In fact, at Bain, a general focused on strategic knowledge domains and email message is periodically sent to all serves as the basis for rewards and for the consultants highlighting the “top 20” most company to gauge activity around knowledge used documents in the portal environment. creating processes. This “top 20” list serves not only to direct consultants to those documents that are most 3.12 Promote special online and offline useful to their peers, but, by listing the author events and celebrate success! and office, gives additional prestige to the documents’ authors. At Xerox, the company Savvy community leaders clearly understand discovered that the technicians were more that in knowledge-creating or sharing than happy to add tips to a database because communities, participation is highly dependent they received credit for their contributions, on voluntary participation and that members which enhanced their standing among can only be inspired, not forced, to participate. colleagues. Indeed, when management Consequently, promoting events and suggesting attaching financial incentives to the celebrating the achievements of the &. % % % % % / % % ) tips, the technicians resisted the idea. They community (online or offline) ignites existing felt this would diminish the value of their members and acts as advertisements for contributions. potential participants who have not already joined the community. At Texaco’s General 3.11 Monitor activity and satisfaction level Engineering Department, the leaders of the “Best Practice-KM” community take this task Active leaders keep good statistics about the very seriously. The community achievements participation level of users, areas of the (usually stories on how the sharing of best content that are most searched and visited, practices has saved the company millions of frequency of contributions. They also conduct, dollars) are easily found in the community from time to time, offline and online surveys to intranet and are also heavily promoted understand the needs and levels of through the company’s newsletters, leaflets, satisfaction of members. With this kind of data internal magazines, etc. At Siemens since the formalization of the KM corporate initiative, the ©TerraForum Consultores 9
  10. 10. company has hosted a number of KM internal 5. CONCLUSION events. During these events hundreds of employees from different parts of the globe The lessons presented in this paper highlight meet to present their own individual initiatives that technology plays only a secondary role in and, when possible, develop coordinated the fostering of online communities. Most of global efforts. One of the key activities the key lessons in implementing online involved in the roll-out of ShareNet was a communities are related to issues of “bootcamp” in Munich in July/August of 1999 leadership, focus, motivation, identity, etc that with the participation of about 50 ShareNet require detailed attention to people’s managers from 15 different countries. During perceptions and behavior. In order to provide this bootcamp these managers learned not its members with continuous value from only about the operational side of ShareNet, relevant content and the interactions with but also about the “soft side” of the KM other members an online community also principles that were being introduced at requires careful planning, involvement of Siemens. Each manager was also coached on senior management and dedicated resources how to develop a plan for the rollout of to monitor performance, motivate the ShareNet in his or her office. Everyone left the participants and rapidly adapt the dynamics, bootcamp with a detailed job description, a design and rules of the communities. roll-out plan and, maybe, most importantly, Corporate sponsored online communities are with a trusted network of Knowledge a new phenomenon. The lessons presented in Evangelist (many activities were geared this paper are, therefore, exploratory in nature initially at building trust amongst this core and need to be analyzed carefully since the group and team building. Since then there was understanding of the overall business and also a ShareNet Manager Conference in organizational impact of such initiatives is also December 2000 where all “Knowledge at its very early stage. Evangelists” came together and enjoyed the team and trust building activities on top of lots *** of work. Many communities also bring special José Cláudio C. Terra é presidente da guests from time-to-time to increase TerraForum Consultores. Atua como consultor participation and attract new members. e palestrante no Canadá, nos Estados Siemens is an organization that has learned Unidos, em Portugal, na França e no Brasil. this lesson. After realizing that the “chat” Também é professor de vários programas de functionality within its ShareNet community pós-graduação e MBA e autor de vários livros was hardly used, it started promoting sobre o tema. Seu email é worldwide events with senior executives and leading experts. Finally, at Bain, every six months, a KM recognition award (an Honorary Plaque for Outstanding KM Leadership) is given to outstanding performances of one large and one small office. The recognition involves some extra money for the offices to take consultants to “fun” out of the office activities. Some local offices have also created their “own” rewards and recognition for teams and individuals. ©TerraForum Consultores 10
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