The Berlin Wall

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  • very dramatic background. with the black against the red.



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  • The Berlin Wall

    1. 1. The Berlin Wall Naz Syed Crowder 3 rd Period August 13, 1969-November 9,1989
    2. 2. Background Information <ul><li>After World War II, Germany was split into four different occupation zones: the American, the British, the French, and the Soviets. Berlin was also divided into four parts. In 1948, the Soviets tried to annex the whole city. The plans failed because of the Berlin Airlift. </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1961, East Germans could travel freely between the East and West parts of Berlin. Many East Berliners like West Berlin because it was very prosperous, so 20,000 East Germans went to West Berlin every month. On August 12, 1961 the East German authorities closed the border around the western parts of Berlin to keep the East Berliners out. </li></ul><ul><li>The next day, August 13, West Berlin was completely surrounded by barbed wire. The windows of the houses on the border side were all bricked up. Over time, the barbed wire was replaced by a 12 foot high wall. Along the wall’s east side ran a “death zone”. The death zone was controlled by guards. 293 watch towers and 57 bunkers were built along the 508,530 feet long border. The guards were given the order the shoot at the escapees. As a result, 192 people were killed in an attempt to cross the border. </li></ul>
    3. 3. How It All Began <ul><li>The Berlin wall was built on August 13, 1961. </li></ul><ul><li>It all began after World War II when Germany was divided into four occupation zones. </li></ul><ul><li>East Berliners liked West Berlin better, so more and more people moved to West Berlin. Soon, too many people kept coming to West Berlin, so the border was closed and a wall was built. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Some Important Details <ul><li>The Berlin Wall was a wall that prevented people to come to West Berlin. Too many people kept on coming to West Berlin from East Berlin, so they put up the wall to stop them. </li></ul><ul><li>Many families were split apart and many people were cutoff from their jobs. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Berlin Wall Images One of the 293 watch towers Of the Berlin Wall Berlin Wall
    6. 6. Three Important People <ul><li>Ronald Reagan-President of the United Stated at the Time </li></ul><ul><li>Nikita Khrushchev-Soviet Leader in Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Ulbricht-East German Leader </li></ul>
    7. 7. Ronald Reagan-US President <ul><li>“ General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” </li></ul><ul><li>Those were some famous words of his during his speech towards Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Two years after the speech, Gorbachev gave permission to destroy the Berlin Wall. Today we still do not know how much impact Reagan’s speech had on the tearing down of the wall, but his speech is still considered an important part of the Cold War. </li></ul>Ronald Reagan: 1911-2004
    8. 8. Nikita Khrushchev-Soviet Leader <ul><li>Nikita Khrushchev was the Soviet Leader during the building of the Berlin Wall. He was the person who gave permission to build the Berlin Wall. By giving the permission of putting up the wall, he reinforced the Cold War division of Germany and Europe as a whole. </li></ul>Nikita Khrushchev: 1894-1971
    9. 9. Walter Ulbricht-East German Leader <ul><li>Walter Ulbricht, head of the East German Communist Party, realized that by creating tension, the Soviets would support the East Germans. The Soviets wanted to make East Germany into a stable industrialized state , but the stability would weaken Ulbricht’s power. In 1961, as the Soviets and Americans were meeting, Ulbricht randomly stated “nobody has the intention of building a wall.” This panicked thousands of Germans. A few months later, he built the wall overnight. He convinced the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev that he needed to wall off West Berlin in order to stabilize East Germany. </li></ul>Walter Ulbricht: 1893-1973
    10. 10. Berlin Wall Surrounds West Berlin <ul><li>The Berlin Wall surrounds West Berlin so that no one from East Berlin could escape and live in the West. </li></ul>Above is a map of Berlin when the Berlin Wall was surrounding West Berlin.
    11. 11. Timeline <ul><li>May 8, 1945-World War II is over and Berlin is divided into 4 sectors: Americans, French, British, and Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>June 23, 1948- Currency reform in Berlin; Berlin is divided into two different currency zones </li></ul><ul><li>June 24,1948- Begin of the Berlin blockade </li></ul><ul><li>June 25,1948- Berlin Airlift Begins </li></ul><ul><li>May 12, 1949- End of Berlin Blockade </li></ul><ul><li>May 24, 1949- Federal Republic of Germany is founded (west Germany) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Timeline Continued <ul><li>September 30, 1949- End of Berlin Airlift </li></ul><ul><li>October 7, 1949- German Democratic Republic is founded (East Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>May 26, 1952- Border between East and West Germany and between East Germany and West Berlin is still opened </li></ul><ul><li>November 14, 1953- The Western Powers waive the Inter-zone pass, the Soviet Union follows but East German citizens need permission to travel to the West </li></ul>
    13. 13. Timeline Continued Part 3 <ul><li>December 11, 1957- Leaving East Germany without permission is forbidden and violations are prosecuted with prison up to three years. </li></ul><ul><li>August 13, 1961- The Berlin border between East and West Berlin is closed, barriers are built. </li></ul><ul><li>August 14, 1961- Brandenburg Gate is closed </li></ul><ul><li>August 26, 1961- All crossing points are closed for West Berlin citizens </li></ul><ul><li>June 26, 1961- President John F. Kennedy visits Berlin and says “Ich bin ein Berliner.” That means “I am a Berliner.” </li></ul>
    14. 14. Timeline Continued Part 4 <ul><li>December 17, 1963- West Berlin citizens can visit East Berlin the first time after more than two years </li></ul><ul><li>September 3, 1971- Four Power’s Agreement over Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>June 12, 1987- President Ronald Reagan visits Berlin and urges Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall </li></ul><ul><li>September 10, 1989- Hungarian government opens border for East German refugees </li></ul><ul><li>November 9, 1989- Berlin Wall is opened </li></ul><ul><li>December 22- Brandenburg Gate it opened </li></ul><ul><li>October 3, 1990- Germany is reunited </li></ul>
    15. 15. Bibliography <ul><li>&quot;Berlin Wall Timeline.&quot; Berlin Wall Online . 14 Nov. 2007 <http://www.dailysoft.com/berlinwall/history/berlinwall-timeline.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Wall.&quot; A View on Cities . 22 Nov. 2007 <http://www.aviewoncities.com/berlin/mauer.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Origins and Politics of the Berlin Wall.&quot; Andreas.Com . 24 Nov. 2007 <http://www.andreas.com/berlin-more.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Buckley Jr., William F. The Fall of the Berlin Wall . Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004. 4-212 . </li></ul><ul><li>Kirste, Burkhard. &quot;The Berlin Wall.&quot; 27 Feb. 2003. 1 Dec. 2007<http://userpage.chemie.fuberlin.de/BIW/wall.html>. </li></ul>

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