1893 – A revolt over takes Queen Liliuokalani, and Hawaii has a new temporary government. Then they ask for the protection of the United States. 1898 – A legislation is passed, letting the U.S. annex Hawaii. 1919 – The American Fleet Naval is opened, and dedicated at Pearl Harbor. The estimated cost was 5 million dollars. 1940 – Pearl Harbor is made the permanent home of the US Fleet Naval. This tactic calls for the repositioning of 7 cruisers, 17 destroyers, the aircraft carrier Enterprise, and 200 airplanes for its defense fleet. 1941 – Bomb attack on the navel base January - Isoroku Yamamoto begins plotting attack, with Admiral Chuichi Nagumo . December 7 : 7:02 am – The dispatcher spots a Japanese air attack arriving, relays the message, but the message is disregarded. 7:15 am – A second attack wave of 150 planes head for Pearl Harbor. 7:55 am – The beginning Japanese assault wave commences, with Mitsuo Fuchida, a Japanese commander, sounding out Tora! Tora! Tora! or (Tiger! Tiger! Tiger!). 10:00 am – The final bombs fall on the island of Oahu. December 8 - The United States, and Britain declare war on Japan. President Roosevelt is in office.
Pearl Harbor was originally a shallow embayment known as Wai Momi or (water of pearl). It was also called Pu'uloa from the Hawaiians. This was the home of the shark goddess Ka'ahupahau and her brother, in their beliefs. For many years, this area had fertile oysters, producing many pearls. Hence the name Pearl Harbor.
“ Pearl Harbor means a lot to me as a naval officer. Here, in defeat, the U.S. Navy rose from smoke and flame to fight and win a war. As an underwater explorer, I see the harbor itself as a fascinating place. Under the peaceful waters is a battlefield that still holds secrets of December 7, 1941. I often visit the U.S.S Arizona memorial, a great white monument that marks the battleship U.S.S. Arizona, which still rest where she sank that Sunday morning, I often think that most people who fought in World War II war teenagers, they lived on a farm in Kansas or were just out of high school in Detroit, or were working at the family hardware store in Maine. Then, all of a sudden, they found themselves in a war that would change world history. ” Says, Robert D. Ballard from a foreword in the book Remember Pearl Harbor .
Annexation of Hawaii - 1898 On August 12 th 1898, Hawaii was annexed by the United States. The annexation added on to territory of the US in the Pacific. The most significant reason for the annexation was the fear of Hawaii becoming apart of the European nations empire. The annexation is still being questioned today, because it was a US government ruling, and not a treaty of cession, required by law. Many opposed this decision in the beginning, thus creating a petition to stop it, but in the end a compromise was met.
“ Horrors of War” These “comic strips” came with bubble gum in prewar and war years. These comics depicted heroic and villainous acts. In actuality they lived up to their name, teaching countless American children that World War II was a worldwide horror of death and destruction.
Opening of Pearl Harbor - 1919 The opening of Pearl Harbor was an epic attraction to civilians at Pearl Harbor, this base took 10 years to build and perfect. Their had been many errors in contracting and these corrections would prove to be helpful in the long run. The crowds for the opening was tremendous, as seen in the picture above.
Permanent home to Navy:1940 In the December of 1940, Pearl Harbor became the permanent home to the United States Navy Base. This tactic called for the repositioning of 7 cruisers, 17 destroyers, the aircraft carrier Enterprise, and 200 airplanes for its defense fleet. This was a massive move for the United States, and would cost a very big amount to do, but we continued on with the move.
This is the actual document that President Franklin Delano Roosevelt read from as he gave speech. “ A date which will live in infamy ”
Mitsuo Fuchida Chuichi Nagumo Isoroku Yamamoto The Commander-in-chief of the Japanese Navy Air Service. He planned the first air fleet of 6 carriers armed with 390 planes. When he died it was a tremendous blow to the Japanese morale during WWI The Admiral of the Japanese Navy Air Service, and oversaw the attack. He is criticized mostly for not launching a third attack wave. Nagumo committed suicide, after a stalemate in war. A Captain of the Japanese Navy Air Service. He lead the first air wave attack on Pearl Harbor. Also he was in charge of coordinating the entire aerial attack. After WWI he became a Christian Evangelist until his death.
Pearl Harbor Attack: December 7,1941 At 7: 55 on December 7, 1941 Pearl harbor was attacked by the Japanese Imperial Navy. The beginning Japanese assault wave commenced, with Mitsuo Fuchida, a Japanese commander, sounding out Tora! Tora! Tora! or (Tiger! Tiger! Tiger!). There were 51 'Val' dive bombers, 40 'Kate' torpedo bombers, 50 high level bombers and 43 'Zero' fighters. The first wave mostly targeted the battleships, and airfields.
Pearl Harbor Attack: December 7,1941 News of the "sneak attack" is broadcasted to America by radio bulletins, with many popular Sunday afternoon entertainment programs being interrupted. The news sends a shockwave across the nation and results in a tremendous arrival of young volunteers into the U.S. armed forces. The attack also unites the nation behind the President and effectively ends America’s neutrality. By 10:00a.m. the final bomb is dropped, and all of Pearl Harbor’s base ships are destroyed, with many deaths and casualties. Leaving America stunned. Continued…
U.S. Declares War: December 8, 1941 On December 8, 1941 just a day after Pearl Harbor, the United States with Great Britain declare war between themselves and the Japanese country. President Roosevelt asks the Senate for their choice and they form a unanimous decision to go into war.
The attack on Pearl Harbor, was one of epic proportions. The US lost countless numbers of soldiers, and pilots, not to mention many casualties. It was a major blow to the US fleet, and a shock to many Americans. This major attack forced the United States into war with China. There was a unanimous decision , 29 to 0 for the war. The main cause was that the US realized they were now vulnerable, and not as impenetrable as they thought. There have been many rumors, that the United States Military could have avoided, and prevented this attack. This hasn’t been proven to be true. That next day President Franklin Delano Roosevelt made a speech stating this day as, “a date which will live in infamy.“ As Robert Ballard would say, “.. if you remember this war and its cost in human lives and suffering, you will never want another one.”
<ul><li>Book(s): </li></ul><ul><li>Allen, Thomas B. “ Remember Pearl Harbor: American and Japanese Survivors tell their stories ”. Washington, D.C. : National Geographic Society, 2001. 6 – 7. 21 November 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Bender, David L. “ World War II: Opposing Viewpoints .” San Diego, California.: Greenhaven Press, Inc. 1997. 21 November 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Bachrach, Deborah.” Pearl Harbor: Opposing Viewpoints .” San Diego, California.: Greenhaven Press, Inc. 1989. 21 November 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Website(s): </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pearl Harbor Raid, 7 December 1941” Naval Historical Center. 7 October 2000. 21 November 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/pearlhbr/pearlhbr.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Young, Frank Pierce "Pearl Harbor History: Building a way to the Date of Infamy.” 21 November 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.microworks.net/pacific/bases/pearl_1919-1941.htm </li></ul>Sources: